Design and Syntheses of Triarylborane Decorated Luminescent Dyes : Intriguing Optical Properties and Anion Sensing Applications
Swamy, Chinna Ayya P
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The main thrust of this thesis is the development of new triarylborane containing luminescent molecules as well as utilizing triarylboron center as a receptor for the selective detection of biologically, environmentally and industrially important anions such as fluoride and cyanide in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. The thesis contains nine chapters. The contents of each chapter are described below. Chapter 1 The first chapter is an introduction to the theme of the thesis and presents a general review on the techniques, theories and photochemistry relevant to the present work with emphasis on photochemistry of triarylboranes and their importance in the field of anion sensor chemistry. A review on various boron based luminophores is also presented. Chapter 2 The second chapter deals with the general experimental techniques and synthetic procedures utilized in this work. Chapter 3 This chapter deals with the synthesis of boryl-BODIPY dyads (1-8) in which triarylborane acts as anion receptor and BODIPY as a signalling unit. The absorption spectra of all boryl-BODIPY dyads shows similar pattern. However, the fluorescence spectra of 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 shows dual emission bands whereas 4, 5 and 8 exhibit a single emission band. These interesting photophysical properties of boryl-BODIPYs (1-8) depends on the dihedral angle between two chromophores and partial energy transfer from donor (triarylborane) to acceptor (BODIPY) unit. The energy transfer efficiency of compounds 4, 5 and 8 is higher (close to 100%) compared to other series of boryl-BODIPYs (1-3, 6 and 7), due to the orthogonal arrangement of chromophores with high dihedral angles. To better understand photophysical properties and energy transfer process, anion binding studies were carried out since triarylborane acts as receptor for fluoride and cyanide ions. Anion binding studies of boryl-BODIPYs were (1-5) carried out in dichloromethane solutions and using tetrabutylammonium salt of fluoride/cyanide. All boryl-BODIPY dyads (1-5) were sensitive and selective sensor of fluoride, whereas the presence of only excess amounts (20 equv or more amounts) of cyanide made any changes in absorption and emission spectra. Other anions even above 100 eq were unable to cause any change. The quenching efficiency of compounds 4 and 5 was found to be more than that of other boryl-BODIPYs (1 and 3). The binding of fluoride with boryl-BODIPY (1-5) was entirely reversible; addition of BF3•Et2O to the fluoride adducts of compounds (1-5) regenerated the parent compounds. Chapter 4 In chapter 3, it was established that linear boryl-BODIPY dyads (1-8) show dual/single fluorescence bands depending on the dihedral angle between triarylborane and BODIPY unit. This Chapter describes the synthesis of three new “V” shaped boryl-BODIPY dyads (9, 10 and 11) their optical properties, Compound 9-11 are structurally similar differing only in the number of methyl substituents on the BODIPY moiety which were found to play major role in determining their optical behavior. The dyads show rare forms of multiple channel emission characteristics arising from different extents of electronic energy transfer (EET) processes between the two covalently linked fluorescent chromophores (triarylborane and BODIPY units). Owing to the presence of Lewis acidic triarylborane moiety, the dyads function as highly selective and sensitive fluoride sensors with vastly different response behavior. Upon binding of fluoride to the tricoordinate borane centre, dyad 9 shows gradual quenching of its BODIPY dominated emission due to the cessation of (borane to BODIPY) EET process. Dyad 10 shows ratiometric changes in its emission behavior upon addition of fluoride. Dyad 11 forms fluoride induced nanoaggregates which result in fast and effective quenching of its emission intensity upon addition of even small quantities of analyte (i.e. 0.1 equivalent of fluoride). When the solution is allowed to stand, disaggregation of the molecules results in partial recovery of the initial fluorescence bands. Thus, small structural alterations in these three structurally close dyads (9-11) result in exceptionally versatile and unique photophysical behavior and remarkably diverse responses towards a single analyte i.e. fluoride anion. Chapter 5 This chapter deals with intermolecular charge transfer (ICT) process in borane containing donor-acceptor triads and tetrads to realize colorimetric response for small anions such as fluoride and cyanide. Triad 12 and tetrad 13 incorporating –B(Mes)2, BDY (borondipyrromethene), and TPA (triphenylamine) were synthesized. Introduction of two dissimilar acceptors (triarylborane and BODIPY) on a single donor (TPA) resulted in two distinct ICT process (amine to borane and amine to BDY). The absorption and emission properties of new triad and tetrad are highly dependent on individual building units. The nature of electronic communication among the individual fluorophore units has been comprehensively investigated and compared with building units. Compounds 12 and 13 showed chromogenic and fluorogenic response towards small anions such as fluoride and cyanide. Chapter 6 In the previous chapter, it was demonstrated that although triphenylamine-triarylborane-BODIPY donor-acceptor conjugates show colorimetric response towards fluoride and cyanide. They could not distinguish these two interfering anions. To overcome the anion interference peripherally triarylborane decorated porphyrin (14) and its Zn(II) complex (15) were designed and synthesized and this forms the subject matter of this Chapter. Compound 15 contains two different Lewis acidic binding sites (Zn(II) and boron centre). Unlike all previously known triarylborane based sensors, the optical responses of 15 towards fluoride and cyanide are distinctively different thus enabling the discrimination of these two interfering anions. Metalloporphyrin 15 shows a multiple channel fluorogenic response towards fluoride and cyanide and also a selective visual colorimetric response towards cyanide. By comparison with model systems and from detailed photophysical studies on 14 and 15, it was concluded that the preferential binding of fluoride occurs at the peripheral borane moieties resulting in the cessation of the EET (electronic energy transfer) process from triarylborane to porphyrin core and with negligible negative cooperative effects. On the other hand, cyanide binding occurs at the Zn(II) core leading to drastic changes in its absorption behavior which can be followed by the naked eye. Such changes are not observed when the boryl substituent is absent (e.g. tetraphenyl-Zn(II)-porphyrin or TPP). The conjugates 14 and 15 showed reversible binding interaction towards CN and F and they are capable of extracting fluoride from aqueous media. Chapter 7 This Chapter deals with the design of a sensor which can detect fluoride colorimetrically in aqueous medium. Detecting fluoride in aqueous solution is an important area of current research owing to both positive and negative health and environmental effects associated with the fluoride ion. Although numerous fluoride sensors are reported, the colorimetric sensing (visual detection without the need of costly equipment and complicated analytical of fluoride at recommended levels 0.7 ppm) has not realized. Here we report the design, optical and fluoride sensing ability of two new water soluble Lewis acidic triarylborane-triarylamine conjugates 16 and 17 (containing one or two ammonium cations (-C6H4-NMe3). Compound 17 shows selective colorimetric response for aqueous inorganic fluoride at as low a level as 0.1 ppm Chapter 8 The synthesis and optical properties of four new triarylborane–dipyrromethane (TAB– DPM) conjugates (19a–d) containing dual binding sites (hydrogen bond donor and Lewis acid) have been reported. The new compounds exhibit a selective fluorogenic response towards the F− ion. The NMR titrations show that the fluoride ions bind to the TAB–DPM conjugates via the Lewis acidic triarylborane centre in preference to the hydrogen bond donor (dipyrromethane) units. Chapter 9 A new triarylborane-aza-BODIPY conjugate is reported (22). The conjugate molecule consists of two blue emissive dimesitylarylborane moiety and a NIR (near infra-red) emissive aza-BOIDPY core and shows panchromatic absorption spanning over ~300-800 nm region. The presence of two different fluorophore units in the conjugate leads to a broad dual-emissive feature covering a large part of visible and NIR region. DFT computational studies suggest limited electronic communication between the individual fluorophore units which may be responsible for the intriguing optical features of the conjugate molecule. Further, the broadband emissive conjugate can act as a selective sensor for fluoride anion as a result of fluorescence quenching response in both visible as well as in NIR spectral region.
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