Triarylborane Functionalized Dicyanovinyl and Acetylacetone Based Molecular Platforms : Building Blocks for Multiple Anion Sensors and Efficient Phosphorescence Emitters
Rajendra Kumar, G
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Triarylborane Functionalized Dicyanovinyl and Acetylacetone Based Molecular Platforms: Building Blocks for Multiple Anion Sensors and Efficient Phosphorescence Emitters The main objective of this thesis is to design a simple strategy for triarylborane based multiple anion sensors and development of triarylborane incorporated phosphorescent metal complexes. The thesis consists of eight chapters and the contents of each chapter are given below. Chapter 1 This chapter gives a general introduction to recent advances relevant to the theme of the thesis. A review of the fundamental characteristics of triarylboranes and their applications in various fields such as chemical sensors and optoelectronics is presented. Advances in boron chemistry in the areas such as anion sensors, solid state emissive and phosphorescence materials are discussed in detail. The scope of the thesis is outlined at the end of the chapter. Chapter 2 The second chapter deals with the general experimental techniques and synthetic procedures followed in this thesis. Chapter 3 This chapter deals with a rational design strategy for differential identification of fluoride and cyanide ions using TAB based sensors. In general, most of the triarylboranes give similar optical responses towards fluoride and cyanide ions as they follow similar sensing mechanism. In order to circumvent this problem, two TAB-DCV conjugates (1 and 2) are designed and synthesised. The DCV unit is highly specific for cyanide ion owing to the presence of electrophilic carbon center. Probes 1 and 2 differ in steric crowding around the boron center. The less crowded boron center in 1 binds with fluoride as well as with cyanide ions giving similar optical response (luminescence is quenched in presence of F¯ and CN¯). In the case of 2, selectivity of boron center towards fluoride is tuned by increasing the steric crowding around the boron unit. The dicyanovinyl unit acts as selective sensing site for cyanide ions. As a result, 2 gives different fluorogenic response towards the anions F¯ and CN¯ which were considered as interfering anions in TAB based sensor chemistry. Thus, a modular design principle is developed for differential identification of fluoride and cyanide ions using TAB. Chapter 4 In this chapter, detailed photophysical studies of TAB-amine-DCV conjugates and colorimetric discrimination of fluoride and cyanide ions are discussed. Presence of amine based donor between the two electron deficient sites enhances the electronic conjugation in 3−5. Since there are two different acceptor sites with a common donor, two distinct charge transfer transition bands are observed in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. The absorption and emission spectra of these compounds show pronounced sensitivity to solvent polarity, signifying large excited state dipolmonents. Anion binding studies confirms that these compounds are highly selective towards fluoride and cyanide ions. Fluoride ions selectively interact with boron center and block the corresponding charge transfer transition thereby leading to a distinct colour change which is observable by naked eye. On the other hand, cyanide interacts with boron as well as DCV unit and blocks both the charge transfer transitions which results in disappearance of colour. Hence, compounds 4 and 5 exhibit different colorimetric signals for fluoride and cyanide ions. Since the absorption bands of 3 do not fall in the visible region, it does not show any colorimetric response towards the aforementioned anions. The anion sensing mechanisms are established by 1H, and 19F NMR studies. Chapter 5 This chapter presents a systematic study of the effect of length of π-electronic conjugation on the optical properties and anion sensing abilities of a series of TAB-oligothiophene-DCV conjugates (6−8). Their absorption as well as emission bands undergo redshift upon increasing the number of thiophene units between TAB and DCV units as the π-electronic conjugation in 6−8 is greatly dependent on the number of thiophene units. Their fluorescence emission is highly sensitive to solvent polarity. In the case of 6, the emission band undergoes a redshift with reduced intensity. In the case of 7 the emission band undergoes a redshift but the intensity is not affected by solvent polarity. In the case of 8, the emission band undergoes redshift with enhanced intensity in polar solvents. Interestingly, 7 and 8 show solvent viscosity dependent fluorescence. Structural reorganisation is restricted in viscous medium and results in enhanced emission for 7 and 8. Further, these compounds exhibit selective response towards the fluoride and cyanide ions with different colorimetric responses. Test strips made up of probes 7 and 8 have potential application in identifying fluoride and cyanide ions in aqueous medium. Chapter 6 This chapter describes synthesis and optical characterisation of triarylborane incorporated acetylacetone (acacH) ligands (9, 10) and their borondifluoride complexes (11, 12). AcacH ligands and BF2 complexes show solvent dependent emission phenomena due to the involvement of charge transfer transition. Their optical properties are highly dependent on molecular conformations. Complex with duryl spacer (12) exhibits more red shifted emission in polar solvents due to the enhanced charge transfer transition facilitated by twisted rigid geometry. In presence of fluoride and cyanide ions, the borondifluoride complexes are not stable. The anions concomitantly interact with tricoordinate boron as well as acac-BF2 unit to give rise to complex pattern of photoluminescence spectral changes during the titration experiment. The binding pathway and the possible species involved are established with the help of 1H, 19F and 11B NMR spectral studies in presence of the anions. Complexes 11 and 12 act as selective chemodosimetric sensors for fluoride and cyanide ions. Chapter 7 In this chapter, the synthesis and optical characterisations of triarylborane conjugated cyclometalated platinum complexes are discussed. A series of square planar platinum complexes are synthesised with different cyclometalating ligands. Complexes (13−18) exhibit a range of luminescence from green to red in solution as well as in the solid state. Their emission intensities are highly sensitive towards atmospheric oxygen suggesting that they originate from a triplet excited state. A maximum of 85% quantum yield is observed for complex 15 in solution state while complex 14 showed a maximum of 58% quantum yield in solid state. Complexes with rigid molecular conformation (14, 16 and 18) showed higher luminescence quantum yield than those having phenyl spacer (13, 15 and 17). The sterically encumbered boryl (-BMes2) group significantly reduces π-π stacking between the square planar entities. Thus, complexes 13−18 show bright luminescence in solid state compared to model complexes without boryl group. The effect of Lewis acidic boron center on luminescence behaviour is explored by fluoride binding studies. Chapter 8 This chapter is divided into two parts. Part-I describes the synthesis and optical characterisation of triarylborane conjugated cyclometalated iridium complexes (19−24). They are brightly luminescent in solution state with high sensitivity towards atmospheric oxygen. Complex 20 shows a highest quantum yield of 91%. Interestingly, under ambient atmospheric conditions, they exhibit a rare type of dual emission. Life time data suggest that the lower energy emission band originates from cyclometalated iridium based triplet excited state while higher energy emission band originates from boryl ased singlet excited state. Fluoride binding at the boron site results in luminescence quenching; evidently, tri-coordinate boron has a major contribution to the luminescence features of these iridium complexes. Part-II deals with synthesis of triarylborane conjugated pyrazole ligand (25) and its binuclear iridium complexes (26−28) in which two iridium centers are bridged by hydroxo as well as pyrazolato ligands. These binuclear iridium complexes exhibit higher luminescence quantum yield than TAB-acac-Iridium complexes (mononuclear complexes; part I). Binding of fluoride ions at the boron center has a minor impact on their luminescence nature. High sensitivity of their luminescence towards atmospheric oxygen indicates the involvement of triplet excited state in their emission process.