Antimicrobial Peptides And Salmonella Pathogenesis
Chapter-I Introduction The bacteria known as Salmonellae are gram-negative, rod-shaped intracellular pathogenic bacilli that belong to the family Enterobacteriacea and causes typhoid fever. Enteric fever or typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by human specific enteric pathogen S.typhi. Another very similar but less severe disease, paratyphoid fever, is caused by another human pathogen S.paratyphi A, B and C and S.sendai. Typhoid fever is estimated to have caused 21.6 million illness and 1-4 % death worldwide in the year of 2000 effecting all ages and 90% of death occurs in Asia. In Asia, the incident of typhoid fever was highest with 274 cases per 100,000 persons worldwide, especially in Southeast Asian countries and the Indian subcontinent, followed by sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America with 50 cases per 100,000 persons. Transmission of the disease occurs through faecal-oral route upon ingestion of contaminated water and food. Salmonella can stay for long in ground and pond water. Typhoid fever can be fatal if left untreated and there are reports of 10-30 fatality in such cases and can persist for weeks. Prevention is better than cure. Same hold true even for typhoid fever also. The important and key preventive measures are clean and safe water, safe food, personal hygiene and appropriate sanitation. There are many antibiotics for typhoid fever but till now there are only two licensed vaccine recommended by the World Health Organization for the typhoid fever, one Vi polysaccharide subunit vaccine (sold as Typhim Vi by Sanofi Pasteur and Typherix by GlaxoSmithKline) which is administered through intramuscular route and another one is live oral attenuated vaccine Ty21a (sold as Vivotif Berna) for oral immunization. Both the vaccines are recommended to be used for the children above the age of 3-5 years. Both are between 50 to 80% protective and are recommended for travelers to areas where typhoid is endemic. Salmonella has evolved many strategies to survive inside host system especially during initial time of infection when bacteria counteract to host AMPs in intestine lumen. Salmonella has many pathogenesis island which help bacteria to invade the host system e.g. SPI-1(Salmonella pathogenicity island -1) and also help in intracellular survival as well proliferation e.g. SPI-2 (Salmonella pathogenicity island -2). Salmonella has many strategies to evade host immune system, one of them which is very important for bacteria is LPS modification. Salmonella is capable to modify its own LPS by increasing the +ve charge and increasing AMPs resistance. This modification and resistance is brought about by PhoP/Q and pmrA/B two different two-component system (TCS). These TCS regulate many genes like pmrD, pmrC, pmrG, pmrH-M operon, pmrE etc, which are important for LPS modification by adding 4-amino-arabinose and provide antimicrobial peptide resistance. Chapter-II Development of live attenuated Salmonella vaccine The superiority of live attenuated vaccines in systemic salmonellosis has been proven over killed and subunit vaccines, because of its ability to induce protective cell mediated immunity by CD8+ T cells. A live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine has been developed by systematic site directed deletion of the pmrG-HM-D chromosomal genomic loci. This gene confers involved in antimicrobial peptide resistance and is involved in LPS modification, both of which are the major immune evasive mechanisms in Salmonella. The efficacy of the newly developed strain in inducing protection against mortality after challenge with the virulent wild type Salmonella typhimurium 12023 was evaluated in mice model of typhoid fever. Animals were immunized and then boosted on days 7 and 14. Following challenge with virulent S. typhimurium 12023, organ burden and mortality of vaccinated mice were less compared to non-immunized controls. The vaccine strain also induced elevated CD8+ T cells in the vaccinated mice. This multiple mutant vaccine candidate appears to be safe for use in pregnant mice and provides a model for the development of live vaccine candidates against naturally occurring salmonellosis and typhoid fever. Chapter -III A Safe and Efficient Vaccine against Salmonella Infection During Pregnancy Pregnancy is a transient immuno-compromised condition which has evolved to avoid the immune rejection of the fetus by the maternal immune system. The altered immune response of the pregnant female leads to increased susceptibility to invading pathogens, resulting in abortion and congenital defects of the fetus and a subnormal response to vaccination. Active vaccination during pregnancy may lead to abortion induced by heightened cell mediated immune response. In this study, we have administered the highly attenuated vaccine strain ΔpmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07) in female mice before onset of pregnancy and followed the immune reaction against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium in pregnant mice. This vaccine strain gives protection against Salmonella in pregnant mice and also prevents Salmonella induced abortion. This protection is conferred by directing the immune response towards humoral immunity through Th2 activation and Th1 suppression. The low Th1 response prevents abortion. The use of live attenuated vaccine just before pregnancy carries the risk of transmission to the fetus. We have shown that this vaccine is safe as the vaccine strain is quickly eliminated from the mother and is not transmitted to the fetus. This vaccine also confers immunity to the new born mice of vaccinated mothers. Since there is no evidence of the vaccine candidate reaching the new born mice, we hypothesize that it may be due to trans-colostral transfer of protective anti-Salmonella antibodies. Chapter-IV Crosstalk between Salmonella genes involved in antimicrobial peptide resistance (pmrG, pmrD, pmr H-M) The pmr system of Salmonella consists of many genes and they are regulated by two component system (TCS), PmrA/B and PhoP/Q. These two component systems are activated at different Mg 2+and Fe3+ condition, low pH and the presence of antimicrobial peptides. Downstream genes like pmrD, pmrG, pmrH-M operon, pmrE, pmrC ect which are regulated by these TCS are involved in LPS modification and AMPs resistance. When these genes were deleted a highly attenuated strain with good vaccine potential was developed. The high degree of attenuation of the vaccine strain is a combined effect of the deletion of the all genes, when single mutation of the two single genes and the operon were created; the attenuation was not as good as the vaccine strain. When tried checking the cross-talk between these genes in vaccine strain and the single mutants of pmrD, pmrG and pmrH-M operon. In one of the previous report pmrH-M mutant was shown to be attenuated through oral route but not through intra-peritoneal route. However, pmrD-HM-G mutant (DV-STM-07) was attenuated when administered through both the routes of infection. To further explain the cross-talk and regulation of these genes, promoter analysis was done for all genes individually in different mutant background of pmrD, pmrG, pmrH-M and DV-STM-07. We hypothesize that the superior attenuation of the triple mutant is achieved because of transcriptional cross-regulation that exists between these genes which attenuates the bacteria when administered through the intra-peritoneal route.
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Arvindhan, G N (2011-02-08)Chapter Introduction Salmonellae are gram negative bacteria that cause gastroenteritis and entericfever. S. enterica is divided into seven phylogenetic groups, subspecies 1, 2,3a, 3b, and 4, 6, 7. Subspecies1 includes ...
Sandeepa, M E (2010-08-25)The genus Salmonella includes facultative intracellular pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever in humans killing about 2,00,000 people globally every year. Salmonella enterica serovars ...
Iyer, Namrata (2018-02-27)Chapter -I Introduction Salmonella is a pathogen well-known for its ability to infect a wide variety of hosts and causes disease ranging from mild gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. During infection, it is exposed to a ...