Studies On DNA Mismatch Repair Nicking Endonucleases Of Haemophilus Influenzae And Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
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DNA mismatch repair ensures faithful transmission of genetic material from parents to progeny, which is required for the survival of the organism. The studies on E. coli MMR proteins have formed the basis for the study of the MMR system in eukaryotic organisms, because the functions of MMR proteins believed to be been conserved. In organisms that harbor MutH protein, it is known that MutH acts as a monomer which nicks the unmethylated daughter strand and is activated in a MutS-MutL- dependent manner. The cleavage specificity of MutH is very stringent. Till recently, it was not clear as to how MutH distinguishes hemimethylated DNA from fully or unmethylated DNA. The co-crystal structures of MutH-DNA complexes revealed that Y212, R184 and P185 were in close proximity to the methyl-adenine. Clustal-W sequence alignment of MutH with Sau3AI showed that Sau3AI has PCT residues instead of L183, R184, and P185. A triple mutant MutH-L183P-R184C-P185T was found to cleave both unmethylated and methylated DNA. The nicking endonuclease activity of the LRP→ PCT triple mutant was enhanced in the presence of Haemophilus influenzae MutL. The mutL gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was cloned and the gene product purified. It was shown that the homodimeric Neisseria gonorrhoeae MutL (NgoL) protein displays an endonuclease activity that incises covalently closed circular DNA in the presence of manganese or magnesium or calcium ions unlike human MutLα which shows endonuclease activity only in the presence of manganese. Further more the C-terminal domain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MutL (NgoL-CTD) consisting of amino acids 460 to 658 also exhibits Mn2+ dependent endonuclease activity. Sedimentation velocity, sedimentation equilibrium and dynamic light scattering experiments show NgoL-CTD to be a dimer. By in vitro comparison of wild-type and a mutant NgoL-CTD protein, it was shown that the latter protein exhibits highly reduced endonuclease activity. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy was used to determine the kinetics of DNA binding by NgoL. The DNA binding was carried out in absence of metal ions. Interaction studies with NgoL with ssDNA in SPR spectroscopy revealed a KD value of 4.7 × 10–8 M. While the human MutLα endonuclease activity was shown to be stimulated by ATP, ATP inhibits NgoL endonuclease activity. By in vitro comparison of wild-type and a mutant NgoL-CTD protein, it was shown that the latter protein exhibits highly reduced endonuclease activity. NgoL ATPase activity was enhanced in the presence of DNA. The fact that NgoL ATPase activity is stimulated ~ 2.5-fold by dsDNA and ~ 2-fold by ssDNA is a further evidence for the interaction between NgoL and DNA. The results presented above show that NgoL harbors a nicking endonuclease activity which is present in the C-terminal domain. NgoL and NgoL-CTD are dimers in solution and DMHA(X)2E(X)4E motif present in the CTD is required for the nicking endonuclease activity. These results suggest that DNA mismatch repair mechanism in N. gonorrhoeae is different from that in E. coli. In the absence of MutH homolog, N. gonorrhoeae is able to repair the DNA by virtue of MutL nicking endonuclease activity.
- Biochemistry (BC)