Conceptualisation, Development and Validation of Energy Internet for a Transitioning Electricity System
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Globally, the national electricity systems are in the midst of aggressive transitions. A shift from large-scale conventional fossil-fuel based power generation systems to large number of small-scale distributed renewable energy systems is the preferred choice. Planning and managing an electricity system with such a large number of small producers as well as consumers (prosumers) where the transactions are expected to be dynamic and real-time would be complex and challenging. The technological revolutions in power and energy, information and communication, and payment systems have made it possible to have real-time bidirectional flow of electricity, information and money between prosumers. The concept of Energy Internet has evolved from this thought process, where consumers and generators with varying power consumption and generation levels can participate actively in the power transaction mechanism. The overall objective of this research is to study the technological, operational and integration feasibilities of Energy Internet in the context of transitioning electricity system. In the first phase, technological feasibility of Energy Internet is analysed through introduction of new concepts, conceptualization of various entities, working principles and operational rules. Second phase presents a model-based approach to validate the operational feasibility of Energy Internet. Two types of energy market clearance algorithms, namely, day-ahead energy market and real-time peer-to-peer balancing energy market are formulated in this study to validate the operational feasibility through three stage optimization problem. First stage, a day-ahead market clearance algorithm is formulated using non-cooperative n-player game which is iteratively solved using Nikaido-Isoda function and Relaxation Algorithm (NIRA). Second stage, the real-time balancing energy market problem is formulated using bilateral trade. Third stage finds the best peer-to-peer trade combination to fit the energy trade into a blockchain based energy market framework. Proposed model facilitates peer-to-peer energy trade by discharging the battery of the electric vehicles (EVs) connected to Energy Internet through the Vehicle2Grid program. The results show the significance of storage in the Energy Internet, and how electric vehicles can manage the storage demand without other fixed storage devices. In the final phase, the model has been tested and validated with a test microgrid and a real-world microgrid. Finally, the integration feasibility of Energy Internet is analysed, and a roadmap is proposed as way forward for its integration into the Indian national electricity system.