Functionalized Layered Double Hydroxides and Gold Nanorods
The reversible and topotactic insertion of guest species within layered host lattices, known as intercalation is a widely studied phenomena. The Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs) or Anionic Alloys are important class of layered solids with its own distinct ion-exchange host-Guest Chemistry. The LDH structure may be derived from that of Brucite, Mg(OH)2, by random isomorphous substitution of Mg2+ ions by trivalent cations like Al3+, Ga3+ etc. This substitution leaves an excess positive charge on the layers, which is compensated by interlamellar anions. These ions are exchangeable and thus new functionalities can be introduced to ion exchange reactions. Insertion of neutral, non-polar or poorly water-soluble guest molecules remains a challenge. In the present study, two methodologies were adopted to extend the host-guest chemistry of LDHs to neutral and non-polar species, first by using Hydrophobic interaction and second, charge transfer (CT) interaction as driving force. Hlydrophobic interaction as driving force involves functionalization of the Mg-Al-LDH galleries as bilayers, thus covering the essentially hydrophilic interlamellar space of the LDH to one that is hydrophobic and able to solubilize neutral molecules like Anthracene. CT interaction as driving force, involves pre-functionalization of the galleries of the LDH with a donor species e.g. 4-aminobenzoic acid by conventional ion exchange methods to form a LDH-donor intercalated compound. This compound can selectively adsorb acceptor species like Chloranil, Tetracyanoquinodimethane etc. into the interlamellar space of the solid by forming donor-acceptor complexes. The confined donor-acceptor complexes have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, UV-Visible, Fourier Transformed Infra-Red and Raman Spectroscopy, Molecular Dynamics Simulations were able to reproduce the experimental results. One dimensional gold nanostructure like nanorods (AuNRs) have received great attention due to their size dependent optical properties, Extending these applications requires assembling the AuNRs into one-, two- and if possible three-dimensional architectures. Several approaches have been developed to assemble AuNRs in two-orientation modes namely end-to-end and side-to-side. The present study self-assembly of the AuNRs has been achieved by anchoring β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) cavities to the nanorods surface. The host-guest chemistry of β-CD has been exploited to assemble the AuNRs. Our strategy was to use a guest molecule that is capable to link β-CD into 1:2 host-guest fashions to link up two β-CD capped nanorods. The guest molecule chosen for the present study was 1,10-phenanthroline. Linkage between the ends of rods leading to V-shaped rods dimmer assembly and side-to-side assembly was achieved by varying the extent of cyclodextrin capping of the AuNRs followed by the addition of linker, 1,10-phenanthroline. The formation of the assembly was characterized using UV-Visible-Near-IR Spectoscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy.