Transition and Acoustic Response of Vortex Breakdown Modes in Unconfined Coaxial Swirling Flow and Flame
The efficient and enhanced mixing of heat and incoming reactants is achieved in modern gas turbine systems by employing swirling flows. This is realized by a low velocity region (internal recirculation zone -IRZ) zone resulting from vortex breakdown phenomenon. Besides, IRZ acts as effective flame holder/stabilization mode. Double concentric swirling jet is employed in plethora of industrial applications such as heat exchange, spray drying and combustion. As such, understanding essential features of vortex breakdown induced IRZ and its acoustic response in swirling flow/flame is important in thermo-acoustic instability studies. The key results of the present experimental investigation are discussed in four parts. In the first part, primary transition (sub-critical states) from a pre-vortex breakdown (Pre-VB) flow reversal to a fully-developed central toroidal recirculation zone (CTRZ) in a non-reacting, double-concentric swirling jet configuration is discussed when the swirl number is varied in the range 0.592 S 0.801. This transition proceeds with the formation of two intermediate, critical flow regimes. First, a partially-penetrated vortex breakdown bubble (VBB) is formed that indicates the first occurrence of an enclosed structure resulting in an opposed flow stagnation region. Second, a metastable transition structure is formed that marks the collapse of inner mixing vortices. In this study, the time-averaged topological changes in the coherent recirculation structures are discussed based on the non-dimensional modified Rossby number (Rom) which appears to describe the spreading of the zone of swirl influence in different flow regimes. The second part describes a secondary transition from an open-bubble type axisymmetric vortex breakdown (sub-critical states) to partially-open bubble mode (super-critical states) through an intermediate, critical regime of conical sheet formation for flow modes Rom ≤ 1 is discussed when the swirl number (S) is increased beyond 0.801. In the third part, amplitude dependent acoustic response of above mentioned sub and supercritical flow states is discussed. It was observed that the global acoustic response of the sub-critical VB states was fundamentally different from their corresponding super-critical modes. In particular, with a stepwise increase in excitation amplitude till a critical value, the sub-critical VB topology moved downstream and radially outward. Beyond a critical magnitude, the VB bubble transited back upstream and finally underwent radial shrinkage at the threshold excitation amplitude. On the other hand, the topology of the super-critical VB state continuously moved downstream and radially outwards and finally widened/fanned-out at threshold amplitude. In the final part, transition in time-averaged flame global flame structure is reported as a function of geometric swirl number. In particular, with a stepwise increase in swirl intensity, primary transition is depicted as a transformation from zero-swirl straight jet flame to lifted flame with blue base and finally to swirling seated flame. Further, a secondary transition is reported which consists of transformation from swirling seated flame to swirling flame with a conical tailpiece and finally to highly-swirled near blowout ultra-lean flame. For this purpose, CH* chemiluminescence imaging and 2D PIV in meridional planes were employed. Three baseline fuel flow rates through the central fuel injection pipe were considered. For each of the fuel flow cases (Ref), six different co-airflow rate settings (Rea) were employed. The geometric swirl number (SG) was increased in steps from zero till blowout for a particular fuel and co-airflow setting. A regime map (SG vs Rea) depicting different regions of flame stabilization were then drawn for each fuel flow case. The secondary transformation is explained on the basis of physical significance of Rom.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Kulkarni, Varun (2011-04-06)This thesis aims at studying the breakup of swirling liquid sheets discharging from the outer orifice of gas centered swirl coaxial atomizers. Such atomizers are considered as propellant injection systems for semi-cryogenic ...
Athul, JosephStudies on liquid atomization and spray formation in coaxial type atomizers are necessary to improve the performance of liquid propellant rocket engines. Recess ratio, expressed as the ratio of orifice recess length to ...
Sunil, Sanadi Dilip (2018-07-20)The complex multiphase flow physics of spray-swirl interaction in both reacting and non-reacting environment is of fundamental and applied significance for a wide variety of applications ranging from gas turbine combustors ...