Computerized Landmarking And Anthropometry Over Laser Scanned 3D Head And Face Surface Meshes
Understanding of the shape and size of different features of human body from the scanned data is necessary for automated design and evaluation of product ergonomics. The traditional method of ﬁnding required body dimensions by manual measurements (Anthropometry) has many sociological, logistical and technical drawbacks such as prolonged time, skilled researcher for consistency and accuracy of measurements, undesirable physical contact between the subject and the researcher, required presence of people from different demographic categories or travel of researcher with equipments. If these di- mensions are extracted from the stored digital human models, above drawbacks can be eliminated. With the emergence of laser based 3d scanners, it is now possible generate a large database of surface models of humans from different demographic backgrounds but the automatic processing of 3d meshes is under development. Though some commercial packages are available for extraction of a limited number of dimensions from full body scans, mostly belonging to topologically separable body parts like hands and legs, the dimensions associated with head and face are particularly not available in public domain. The processing of surface models of head and face from the automatic measurement point of view is also not discussed in literature though this type of data has many practical applications like ergonomic design of close-ﬁtting products like respiratory masks,ophthalmic frames (spectacles), helmets and similar head-mounted devices; Creation of a facial feature database for face modeling coding and reconstruction and for use in forensic sciences; Automated anthropological surveys and Medical growth analysis and aesthetic surgery planning. Hence, in this thesis, a computational framework is developed for automatic detection, recognition and measurement of important facial features namely eyes, eyebrows, nose, mouth and moustache (if applicable) from scanned head and shoulder polyhedral models. After preprocessing the scanned mesh manually to ﬁll holes and remove singular vertices, discrete diﬀerential geometric operators were implemented to compute surface normals and curvatures. Mean curvature magnitude was used as the primary metric to segment the mesh using morphological watershed algorithms which treat the mesh as a height map and separate the regions according to the water catchment basins. After visualization it was hypothesized that the important facial features consist of relatively high curvature regions and based on this hypothesis a much faster approach was then employed based on mathematical morphology to group the high curvature vertices into regions based on adjacency. The important feature regions isolated this way were then identiﬁed and labeled to be belonging to diﬀerent facial features by a decision tree based on their relative spatial disposition. Adaptive selection of parameters was incorporated later to ensure robustness of this algorithm. Critical points of these identiﬁed features are recognized as the standard landmarks associated with those primary facial features. A number of clinically identiﬁed landmarks lie on the facial mid-line. An efficient algorithm is proposed for detection and processing of the mid-line using a point sampling technique which is fast and has immunity to noise in the data. An algorithm to ﬁnd shortest path between two vertices while traveling along the edges is implemented to measure on-surface distances and to isolate the nose. Complete program comprising of curvature and surface normal computations, seg- mentation and identiﬁcation of 6 important features, facial mid-line processing, detection of total 17 landmarks and shortest path computations to separate nose takes about 2 minutes to work including visualization on a full resolution mesh of typically 2,15,521 Vertices and 4,30,560 Faces. The algorithm was tested successfully on more than 40 faces with minor exceptions. The results match human perception. The computed measurements were also compared with the physical measurements for a few subjects, the measurements were found to be in good agreement and satisfactory for its usage in product ergonomics and clinical applications.