Spectrum Sensing Receivers for Cognitive Radio
Cognitive radios require spectral occupancy information in a given location, to avoid any interference with the existing licensed users. This is achieved by spectrum sensing. Existing narrowband, serial spectrum sensors are spectrally inefficient and power hungry. Wideband spectrum sensing increases the number of probable fre-quency candidates for cognitive radio. Wideband RF systems cannot use analog to digital converters (ADCs) for spectrum sensing without increasing the sampling rate and power consumption. The use of ADCs is limited because of the dynamic range of the signals that need to be sampled and the frequency of operation. In this work, we have presented a CMOS based area efficient, dedicated and scalable wideband parallel/serial spectrum sensor for cognitive radio. The key contributions of the thesis are: 1. An injection locked oscillator cascade (ILOC) for parallel LO synthesis. An area-efficient, wideband RF frequency synthesizer, which simultaneously gen-erates multiple local oscillator (LO) signals, is designed. It is suitable for parallel wideband RF spectrum sensing in cognitive radios. The frequency synthesizer consists of an injection locked oscillator cascade where all the LO signals are derived from a single reference oscillator. The ILOC is implemented in a 130-nm technology with an active area of 0.017 mm2. It generates 4 uni-formly spaced LO carrier frequencies from 500 MHz to 2 GHz. 2. A wideband, parallel RF spectrum sensor for cognitive radios has been de-signed. This spectrum sensor is designed to detect RF occupancy from 250 MHz to 5.25 GHz by using an array of CMOS receivers with envelope detec-tors. A parallel LO synthesizer is implemented as an ILOC. The simulated sensitivity is around -25 dBm for 250 MHz wide bandwidth. 3. A mitigation technique for harmonic downconversion in wideband spectrum sensors. The downconversion of radio frequency (RF) components around the harmonics of the local oscillator (LO), and its impact on the accuracy of white space detection using integrated spectrum sensors, is (are) studied. We propose an algorithm to mitigate the impact of harmonic Down conversion by utilizing multiple parallel downconverters in the system architecture. The proposed algorithm is validated on a test-board using commercially avail-able integrated circuits (IC) and a test-chip implemented in a 130-nm CMOS technology. The measured data shows that the impact of the harmonic down-conversion is closely related to the LO characteristics, and that much of it can be mitigated by the proposed technique. 4. A wideband spectrum sensor for narrowband energy detection. A wideband spectrum sensing system for cognitive radio is designed and implemented in a 130-nm RF mixed-mode CMOS technology. The system employs an I-Q downconverter, a pair of complex filters and a pair of envelope detectors for energy detection. The spectrum sensor works from 250 MHz to 3.25 GHz. The design makes use of the band pass nature of the complex filter to achieve two objectives : i) Separation of upper sideband (USB) and lower sideband (LSB) around the local oscillator (LO) signal and ii) Resolution of smaller bands within a large detection bandwidth. The measured sensitivity is close to -45 dBm for a single tone test over a bandwidth of 40 MHz. The measured Image reject ratio (IRR) is close to 30 dB. The overall sensing bandwidth is 3.5 GHz and the overall wideband detection bandwidth is 250 MHz which is partitioned into 40 MHz narrowband chunks with 8 such overlapping chunks.
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Sanjeev, G (2017-07-25)Cognitive Radio (CR) has received tremendous research attention over the past decade, both in the academia and industry, as it is envisioned as a promising solution to the problem of spectrum scarcity. ACR is a device that ...
Adhikari, Bijaya (2018-01-03)To explore spectral opportunities in wideband regime for cognitive radio we need a wideband spectrum sensing receiver. Current wideband receiver architectures need wideband analog to digital converter (ADC) to sample ...
Sahasranand, K R (2018-07-16)Opportunistic use of unused spectrum could efficiently be carried out using the paradigm of Cognitive Radio (CR). A spectrum remains idle when the primary user (licensee) is not using it. The secondary nodes detect this ...