|dc.description.abstract||Chapter 1. Supramolecular Gels and their Applications
Supramolecular gels are viscoelastic materials composed of a solid like three dimensional fibrillary network that is embedded in a liquid. Supramolecular gels are derived from low molecular weight compounds (typically MW < 3000). In the 1990s, the investigations on gels were mainly focused on designing new gelator molecules. However, during the last decade, research focus shifted towards designing functional gels and their applications. As a result of extensive work in this area, gels have been found to have varied applications in the templated synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials, hybrid materials, light harvesting systems, as responsive system and sensors, and also in drug delivery, tissue engineering etc. This chapter gives an introduction to supramolecular hydrogels/organogels and relevant bile acid chemistry touching upon the gelation properties of the bile acid derivatives. Diverse applications of the supramolecular gels are also illustrated with several examples.
Scheme 1. Various applications of functional supramolecular gels
Chapter 2. Bile Acid derived novel Hydrogelators
Part 1. Hydrogelation of Bile acid protected Amino acids and Hybrid Materials
Hydrogels from low molecular weight molecules have significant importance in biomedical applications. In this chapter, we report injectable hydrogel formation from bile acid conjugates of various amino acids. Hydrogel formation was found to be dependent on multiple factors such as bile acid backbone structure, linkage between the bile acid and the amino acid, pH etc. Single crystal structures of lithocholyl phenylalanine, lithocholyl-glycine, lithocholyl-L valine and lithocholyl-L alanine were also determined. Finally, the hydrogel frameworks were utilized to produce hybrid materials with Gold and ZnO nanoparticles.
Scheme 2. (a) Crystal structure of LC-LF-OH gelator molecule, (b) photograph of gel, (c) SEM and (d) AFM image of LC-LF-OH xerogel
Part 2. Hydrogelation of bile acid-dipeptide conjugates and in situ synthesis
of silver and gold nanoparticles in the hydrogel matrix
Fabricating supramolecular hydrogels with embedded metal nanostructures are important for the design of novel hybrid nanocomposite materials for diverse applications such as bio sensing and chemo sensing platforms, catalytic and antibacterial functional materials etc. Supramolecular self-assembly of bile acid-dipeptide conjugates have led to the formation of new supramolecular hydrogels. Gelation of these molecules depends strongly on the hydrophobic character of the bile acids. Ag+ and Au3+ salts were incorporated in the hydrogels, and photo reduction and chemical reduction led to the in situ generation of Ag and Au NPs in these supramolecular hydrogels without the addition of any external stabilizing agent. The color, size and shape of silver nanoparticles formed by photo reduction depended on the amino acid residue on the side chain. Furthermore, the hydrogel-Ag nanocomposite was tested for its antimicrobial activity.
Scheme 3. Bile acid based dipeptide hydrogelators and soft hybrid materials
Chapter 3. Sonogels of bile salts of In(III): use in the formation of self-templated indium sulfide nanostructures
In this chapter, facile hydrogel formation by Indium(III) cholate and deoxy cholate are reported. When In(III) solution was added to aqueous solutions of sodium cholate and sodium deoxy cholate and sonicated, the mixtures formed gels. The gels thus obtained were translucent/turbid and thermos irreversible. Rheological measurements showed that all of them could be classified as viscoelastic soft solids. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed typical entangled three dimensional fibrous networks. The In-Ch hydrogel were further used to prepare nanostructured In2S3 in which the cholate units possibly acted as a surfactant to confine the growth of the Nano flakes.
Scheme 4. In-Ch hydrogel (Photograph and SEM image of In-Ch gel)
Chapter 4. Palladium-Hydrogel Nanocomposite for C-C Coupling Reactions
Supported metallic nanoparticles are important composite materials owing to their enormous potential for applications in various fields. This chapter describes the in situ formation of palladium nanoparticles in a calcium-cholate (Ca-Ch) hydrogel by reduction with sodium cyan borohydride. The hydrogel matrix appeared to assist the controlled growth as well as stabilization of palladium nanoparticles. The palladium nanoparticle/Ca-Ch hydrogel hybrid
was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, PdNP/Ca-Ch hybrid xerogel was shown to act as an active catalyst for Suzuki reaction under aqueous aerobic conditions, up to 4 cycles. This PdNP/Ca-Ch xerogel retained its catalytic activities on storage for several months.
Scheme 5. Palladium-hydrogel nanocomposite for C-C coupling reactions in water
Chapter 5. Sensitization of Terbium/Europium in self-assembled cholate hydrogel: An approach towards the detection of amine vapours "Luminescent" lanthanides have intrinsic low molar absorptivity, although this problem can be addressed by complexing the lanthanide ion with suitable chelating ligands which improve the luminescence properties drastically. However the design of such systems often involves careful planning and laborious synthetic steps. It is therefore desirable to have a simpler way to sensitize lanthanides with high efficiency.
It was observed in our group that trivalent lanthanides formed hydrogels on the addition of sodium cholate. This chapter describes the discovery of the several biphenyl derivatives (such as 4-biphenylcarbaxaldehyde, 4-acetylbiphenyl) for sensitization of Tb(III) and Eu(III) in lanthanide hydrogels. Sensitization of Tb(III) and Eu(III) were observed by doping was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, PdNP/Ca-Ch hybrid xerogel was shown to act as an active catalyst for Suzuki reaction under aqueous aerobic conditions, up to 4 cycles. This PdNP/Ca-Ch xerogel retained its catalytic activities on storage for several months.
Scheme 6. Schematic representation of the sensitization process (the arrangement of themolecules in the gel fiber is arbitrary)(For figures pl refer the abstract pdf file)||en_US