The Effect of Substituents and Solvents on the Deiodination Reactions of Thyroid Hormones by Iodothyronine Deiodinase Mimics
Thyroid hormones (THs; T4 and T3), secreted from thyroid gland, play an important role in human growth and development. T3 (3,5,3′-triiodothyronine) is the active hormone and the conversion of T4 (3,3′,5,5′-tetraiodothyronine) to T3 in cells is mediated by iodothyronine deiodinases enzymes (DIOs). DIOs are selenocysteine containing enzymes and are classified into three types (DIO1, DIO2 and DIO3). DIO1 catalyzes the outer-ring deiodination (ORD; T3 formation) and inner-ring deiodination (IRD; rT3 formation) reactions, involving in the activation (T4 to T3 conversion) and inactivation (T4 to rT3 conversion), respectively. DIO2 and DIO3 catalyse the ORD and IRD reactions, respectively. This homeostasis is regulated tightly and any deviation would lead to diseases like hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Recently it is of interest to many research groups to develop iodothyronine deiodinase mimics and we have developed naphthalene-based peri-substituted thioselenol pair at 1,8-positions (1.25), which remove iodine selectively from inner-ring of T4. When selenium atom is substituted in place of sulfur (selenol-selenol pair; 1.26), the deiodination activity was ca. 90 times faster than with 1.25. This thesis deals with various aspects of the effect of substituents on the naphthalene-1,8-diselenol and solvent effect on the thyroid hormone deiodination by naphthalene-based iodothyronine deiodinase mimics. Figure 1. (A) Deiodination reactions by DIOs. (B) Chemical structure of 1.25 and 1.26. The thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter provides a general overview about sialoproteins, thyroid hormone biosynthesis, thyroid hormone metabolism, halogen bonding, iodothyronine deiodinase mimics and proposed mechanisms for the deidoination of thyroid hormones. This chapter also introduces peri-naphthalene-1,8-diselenol (1.26), which is the key compound in this thesis and discusses about proposed mechanism for the deiodination of thyroxine involving co-operative halogen bonding and chalcogen bonding mechanism. Figure 2. (A) TH action. (B) Proposed mechanism for the deiodination of T4 by 1.26 involving cooperative halogen bonding and chalcogen bonding. Chapter 2 discusses about the synthesis, characterization and deiodination activity of a series of naphthalene-based peri-substituted-1,8-diselenols (Figure 3). These diselenols regioselectivity remove iodine from inner ring of thyroxine and other thyroid hormones, (T3 and 3, 5-T2). Substitution with different groups on the naphthalene ring did not change the regioselectivity of deiodination, indicating that the deiodination activity does not depend on the nature of substituents. Secondary or tertiary amine side chain group attached at the 2nd position of the naphthalene ring showed better activity. It is due to the secondary interaction, which facilitates the iodine removal. It was further confirmed with the substitutions at the 4th position of the ring to discriminate the possibility of electronic effect. The higher deiodination rate owing to the t-butyl group at second position of the ring also suggests that the steric effect may also play a role in the deiodination reaction (Figure 4). It is proposed that peri substituted naphthalene-1,8-diselenols remove iodine from thyroid hormones through halogen bonding-chalcogen bonding mechanism (Figure 2). The investigation of Se···Se bond distance from the crystal structures and through DFT calculation and NMR experiment showed that the stronger chalcogen bond could be the reason for the increase in the reactivity observed with substituted peri-naphthalene-1,8-diselenols. Figure 3. peri-substituted naphthalene-1,8-diselenols used for the study. Figure 4. Relative deiodinase activity of substituted-peri-naphthalene-1,8-diselenols with T4. In Chapter 3, we have discussed about the effect of chalcogen atom substitution in a series of deiodinase mimics on the deiodination of thyroid hormones. Moving from thiol-selenol pair (1.25) to selenol-selenol pair (1.26) in naphthalene based peri-substituted mimics, an increase in the activity was observed. In this chapter, we have shown that substituting with tellurium, as tellurium-thiol pair (3.3) and ditellurol (3.4) increases the reactivity of deiodination to several times and also regioselectivity of deiodination is changed from IRD in the case of 1.26 to both IRD and ORD for 3.3 and 3.4. The presence of two tellurol moieties (3.4) or a thiol-tellurol pair (3.3) can mediate sequential deiodination of T4, to produce all the possible thyroid hormone derivatives under physiologically relevant conditions (Figure 5). This study provided the first experimental evidence that the regioselectivity of the thyroid hormone deiodination is controlled by the nucleophilicity and the strength of halogen bond between the iodine and chalcogen atoms. Figure 5. (A) HPLC chromatograms of deiodination reaction of T4 with 3.3 and 3.4. (B) Chemical structure of 3.3 and 3.4. (C) Sequential deiodination reaction of T4 by 3.3 and 3.4. Chapter 4 describes the effect of alkyl conjugation at 4′-OH position of THs on the deiodination by iodothyronine mimics. In addition to the deiodination, iodothyronines undergo conjugation with sulfate and glucuronic acid group at 4′-hydroxyl position. Conjugation alters the physico-chemical properties of iodothyronines. For example, it is known that sulfate conjugation increases the rate of deiodination to a large extend. We have conjugated alkyl group at 4′-hydroxyl position of iodothyronines and investigated the deiodination reactions with reported peri-substituted naphthalene-1,8-diselenols. We observed that similar to sulfated thyroid hormones O-methylthyroxine also undergoes both phenolic and tyrosyl ring deiodination reactions and overall the rate of deiodination is increased at least by 5 times as compared with T4 under identical conditions. The phenolic iodine removal is favored by conjugation as compared to the tyrosyl ring iodine, which is similar to the observation made for T4S. Interestingly, when the acetamide group is conjugated at 4′-OH position, the regioselectivity of deiodination is changed exclusively to 5′-iodine. DFT calculations show that the positive potential on the iodine increase upon conjugation, which leads to stronger halogen bonding interaction with selenol, might be the reason for the change in the regioselectivity of deiodination. Figure 6. (A) HPLC chromatogram of deiodination reaction of T4(Me) with 1.26. (B) Initial rate comparison of T4 and T4(Me).(C) HPLC chromatogram of deiodination reaction of T4(AA) with 1.26 showing the formation of T3(AA) (ORD product). (D) Electron potential map of T4, T4(Me) and T4(AA) showing the increase in electro positive potential on 5′-iodine upon conjugation. Chapter 5 deals with the solvent effect on the deiodination reactions of THs by iodothyronine deiodinase mimics. As discussed in the earlier chapters, the deiodination reaction of thyroxine by naphthalene based-1,8-diselenols under physiological conditions produce, rT3 (IRD) as the only observable products. Surprisingly, when the deiodination reaction was performed in DMF or DMSO in the presence of 1.26, the regioselectivity of reaction was changed and the formation of both T3 (ORD) and rT3 was observed. In DMF or in DMSO, the deiodination reactivity of 1.26 was found to be 1000 fold higher than the reaction performed in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Figure 7. (A) HPLC chromatogram for the deiodination reaction of T4 in DMF by 1.26 showing both IRD and ORD. (B) A comparison of initial rate for the deiodination reactions of T4, T3 and 3,5-T2 in DMF and in DMSO by 1.26. (C) HPLC chromatograms for the deiodination reaction of T4 in DMF by 1.26 in the presence of TEMPO, showing the inhibition of deiodination (i) 0 mM TEMPO (ii) 10 mM of TEMPO (iii) 30 mM TEMPO. (D) HPLC chromatograms for the deiodination reaction of T4 in DMSO by 1.26 in the presence of TEMPO showing the inhibition of deiodination (i) 0 mM TEMPO (ii) 10 mM of TEMPO (iii) 30 mM TEMPO. 3,5-DIT was not denominated under physiological conditions, however, in DMF and in DMSO, 3,5-DIT was deiodinated by 2.4 to produce 3-MIT. We also observed that the control reactions in DMF or DMSO also showed a little deiodination activity. The very high reactivity observed in the presence of DMF or DMSO implied that the mechanism of denomination in these solvents may be different. It has been reported that DMSO or DMF radicals can be formed with small amounts of a base. Reaction mixture consisting of NaBH4 (for generating selenol from diselenide) and NaOH (T4 solution) may facilitate the radical formation. We also performed the reaction in the presence of TEMPO (free radical scavenger) and observed the inhibition of deiodination reaction. However, it is not clear whether the radical pathway could be one of the possible mechanisms of deiodination in these solvents by compounds 1.26 and 2.4. Further studies are required to propose a radical mechanism in different solvents such as DMF and DMSO.