Probing The Equilibrium Geometry Of Weakly Interacting Systems In Solution By Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering
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Under the electric dipole approximation, second harmonic of the incident light is scattered by a collection of randomly oriented molecular dipoles in solution due to instantaneous orientational fluctuation which is directional. If two such dipoles are correlated in space through intermolecular or other interactions, the intensity of the second harmonic scattered light (SHSL) will be related to the extent of such interactions. If two dipoles are arranged in a particular geometry by design, the geometry will determine the intensity of the SHSL. If a molecule has no dipole moment, the intensity of the SHSL will be less and is only allowed by higher order electric multipoles. If two such zero-dipole molecules interact with each other and transfer some amount of electronic charge from one to the other, the induced dipole moment will give rise to an enhanced SHSL. However, along with the direction of the dipole moment from the donor to the acceptor, the actual geometry of such molecular dimer/complex should also play an important role to determine the nature of the SHSL response. If all the isotropic nonzero components of first hyperpolarizability (β) are taken into account, from the measurement of β and related quantities such as depolarization ratios, in solution it should be possible to derive information about the geometry of the dimer/complex. This is precisely the motivation behind this thesis. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction of 1:1 charge transfer (CT) complexes between a donor and an acceptor and their importance in chemistry. It also contains an introduction to nonlinear optics, various spectroscopic techniques to characterize CT complexes, etc. The motivation of extracting the geometry of such complexes from hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) measurements in solution is presented in this chapter. In Chapter 2, all the experimental details of the unpolarized and polarization resolved HRS measurements at various excitation wavelengths have been described. Generation of infrared wavelengths (1543 nm and 1907 nm) using stimulated Raman scattering in gases have also been discussed. In Chapter 3, the first hyperpolarizability (βHRS) for two series of 1:1 molecular complexes between methyl substituted benzene donors with tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (CHL) and dicyanodichloro-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) acceptors in solution at 1543 nm have been presented. Enhancement of βHRS due to charge transfer from the donor to the acceptor molecule which was predicted theoretically has been verified. Using linearly (electric field vector along X direction) and circularly polarized incident light, respectively, two macroscopic depolarization ratios D = I2ω,X,X/I2ω,Z,X and D' = I2ω,X,C/I2ω,Z,C in the laboratory fixed XYZ frame by detecting the SHSL in a polarization resolved fashion have been measured. The experimentally obtained first hyperpolarizability (βHRS), D and D' values, are then matched with the theoretically calculated values from single and double configuration interaction calculations using the Zerner’s intermediate neglect of differential overlap and the self-consistent reaction field (ZINDO–SDCI– SCRF) approach by adjusting the geometrical parameters. It has been found that in most of the CT complexes studied here, there exists a significant twist in the equilibrium geometry at room temperature which is not a simple slipped parallel geometry as was believed. In chapter 4, the βHRS, D and D' values of 1:1 pyridine (PY)-chloranil (CHL) complex at 1064 nm have been described. Previous theoretical studies have shown that there is a tilt angle of 77.9 degree in the gas phase PY-CHL complex. In this chapter, this prediction about the geometry of 1:1 PY-CHL complex has been probed. The experimentally found βHRS, D and D' are matched well with theoretically calculated values, using ZINDO–SDCI–SCRF, for a cofacial geometry of PY-CHL complex in solution indicating that the solution geometry is different from the gas phase geometry. In Chapter 5, the βHRS, D and D' for a series of 1:1 complexes of tropyliumtetrafluoroborate and methyl-substituted benzenes in solution at 1064 nm have been reported. The measured D and D' values vary from 1.36 to 1.46 and 1.62 to 1.72, respectively and are much lower than the values expected from a typical sandwich or a T-shaped geometry. The lowering in D and D' indicates that these complexes have higher symmetry than C2v. The value of D close to 1.5 indicates there is a significant octupolar contribution in such complexes. In order to probe it further, βHRS, D and D' were computed using the ZINDO-SDCI-SCRF technique in the presence of BF4-anion. By arranging the three BF4-ions in a C3 symmetry around the complex in such a way that electrical neutrality is maintained, the computed values are brought to agreement with experiments. This unprecedented influence of the anion on the HRS, D and D' values of these complexes are discussed in this chapter. In Chapter 6, the effect of dipolar interactions, within a multichromophoric system, on the second order nonlinear optical properties have been studied. It has been found that the βHRS response of the multichromophoric system is always larger than expected for uncorrelated chromophores demonstrating that the dipole moment of individual chromophores are not merely additive within the multichromophoric system but contribute cooperatively to the SHSL signal. Also the relative orientation and nature of the chromophores and the angle of interaction between them alter the HRS values. Chapter 7 is the concluding chapter in which all the work done in the thesis has been summarized and future direction has been proposed.