|dc.description.abstract||The thesis entitled “Benzimidazole based Novel Ligands for Specific Recognition of Duplex and G-Quadruplex DNA” deals with the design, synthesis and modeling of several benzimidazole based molecules and their interaction with duplex and G-quadruplex DNA structures. It also elucidates the inhibition effect of the ligands on the activity of Topoisomerase I and Telomerase. The work has been divided into six chapters.
Chapter 1. DNA Interacting Small Organic Molecules: Target for Cancer Therapy
This first chapter presents an overview on the various types of small molecules that interact with duplex and G-quadruplex structures of DNA or interfere with the activity of DNA targeted enzymes like topoisomerase and telomerase. The importance of such molecules as chemotherapeutic agents is highlighted.
Chapter 2. DNA Recognition: Conformational Switching of Duplex DNA by Mg2+ ion Binding to Ligand
Bis-benzimidazoles like Hoechst 33258 are well known ligands that bind to duplex DNA (ds-DNA) minor grooves. Here a series of dimeric bisbenzimidazole based ligands in which two Hoechst units are connected via oxyethylene based hydrophilic [Ho-4ox-Ho (1), Ho-3ox-Ho (2)] or via hydrophobic oligomethylene [Ho-(CH2)8-Ho (3)](Figure 1) spacers have been synthesized. The aim of this investigation is to examine the binding property of these dimers on the ds-DNA to explore whether the variation in the length of the spacer has any effect on DNA binding properties particularly in presence of selected metal ions. The changes of individual dimers in DNA binding efficiency was studied in detail by fluorescence, circular dichroism spectral titrations and thermal denaturation experiment with selected duplex DNA formed from appropriate oligonucleotides. We have also examined the changes that occur in geometry of the molecules from linear to hairpin motif in presence of Mg2+ ion. A large difference was observed in [ligand]/ [DNA] ratio and binding efficiency with ds-DNA upon change in the ligand geometry from linear to hairpin motif. The experimental results were then substantiated using docking and molecular dynamics simulations using a model ds-DNA scaffold. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the DNA binding is highly dependent on the spacer type and length between the two monomeric Hoechst units. The spacer length actually helps to achieve shape complimentarity with the double-helical DNA axis.
Figure1: Chemical structures of the dimeric ligands Ho-4ox-Ho, Ho-3ox-Ho, Ho-(CH2)8-Ho and Hoechst 33258 (Ho) used in this study.
Chapter 3. DNA Binding and Topoisomerase I Inhibiting Properties of New Benzimidazole Substituted Polypyridyl Ruthenium (II) Mixed-Ligand Complexes
In this study, we have synthesized and fully characterized three new Ru(II)
based polypyridyl and benzimidazole mixed complexes: (1) [Ru(bpy)2(PMI)], 2+
(2) [Ru(bpy)2(PBI)]2+ and (3) [Ru(bpy)2(PTI)]2+ (Figure 2) . The affinities of these complexes toward duplex DNA were investigated. In addition, the photocleavage reaction of DNA and topoisomerase I inhibition properties of these metal complexes were also studied. The DNA binding efficiency of individual complexes was studied in detail by absorbance, fluorescence spectral titrations and thermal denaturation experiment using natural calf-thymus DNA. Upon irradiation at 365 nm, all three Ru(II) complexes were found to promote the cleavage of plasmid DNA from negatively supercoiled to nicked circular and subsequently to linear DNA. The inhibition of topoisomerase I mediated by these Ru(II) complexes was also examined. These experiments demonstrate that each complex serves as an efficient inhibitor toward topoisomerase I and such inhibition activity is consistent with interference with the DNA religation step catalyzed by topoisomerase.
Figure 2. Chemical structures of the metal complexes used in this present study.
Chapter 4. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Novel Class of G-Quadruplex-Stabilizing small molecules based on the 1,3-Phenylene-bis (piperazinyl benzimidazole) syatem
Achieving stabilization of telomeric DNA in the G-quadruplex conformation by various organic compounds is an important goal for the medicinal chemists seeking to develop new anticancer agents. Several compounds are known to stabilize the G-quadruplexes. However, relatively few are known to induce their formation and/or alter the topology of the pre-formed G-quadruplex DNA.
Herein, four compounds having the 1,3-phenylene-bis(piperazinyl benzimidazole) (Figure 3) unit as a basic skeleton have been synthesized, and their interactions with the 24-mer telomeric DNA sequences from Tetrahymena thermophilia d(T2G4)4 have been investigated using high-resolution techniques such as circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry, CD melting, emission spectroscopy, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The data obtained, in the presence of one of three ions (Li+, Na+ or K+), indicate that all the new compounds have a high affinity for G-quadruplexDNA, and the strength of the binding with G-quadruplex depends on (i) phenyl ring substitution, (ii) the piperazinyl side chain, and (iii) the type of monovalent cation present in the buffer. Results further suggest that these compounds are able to abet the conversion of the intramolecular G-quadruplex DNA into parallel stranded intermolecular G-quadruplex DNA. Notably, these compounds are also capable of inducing and stabilizing the parallel stranded G-quadruplex DNA from randomly structured DNA in the absence of any stabilizing cation. The kinetics of the structural changes induced by these compounds could be followed by recording the changes in the CD signal as a function of time.
Figure 3. Chemical structures of the ligands used in this study.
Chapter 5A. The Spacer Segment in the Dimeric 1,3-phenylene-bis (piperazinyl benzimidazole) has a Dramatic Influence on the Binding and Stabilization of Human Telomeric G-Quadruplex DNA
Ligand-induced stabilization of G-quadruplex structures formed by human telomeric DNA is an active area of basic and clinical research. The compounds which stabilize the G-quadruplex structures lead to suppression of telomerase activity. Herein, we present the interaction of a series of monomeric and dimeric compounds having 1,3-phenylene-bis(piperazinyl benzimidazole) (Figure 4) as basic pharmacophore unit with G-quadruplex DNA formed by human telomeric repeat d[(G3T2A)3G3]. These new compounds provide an excellent stabilization property to the pre-formed G-quadruplex DNA in the presence of one of three ions (100 mM Li+, Na+ or K+ ions). Also the G-quadruplex DNA formed in the presence of low concentrations of ligands in 100 mM K+, adopts a parallel-stranded conformation which attains an unusual thermal stability. The dimeric ligands having oxyethylene based spacer provide much higher stability to the pre-formed G-quadruplex DNA and the G-quadruplexes formed in presence of the dimeric compounds than the corresponding monomeric counterparts. Consistent with the above observation, the dimeric compounds exert significantly higher telomerase inhibition activity than the monomeric compounds. The ligand induced G-quadruplex DNA complexes were further investigated by computational molecular modeling, which provide useful information on their structure-activity relationship.
Figure 4. Chemical structures of the monomeric and dimeric ligands used in this study.
Chapter 5B. Role of Spacer in Symmetrical Gemini bisbenzimidazole based Ligands on the Binding and Stabilization of Dimeric G-Quadruplex DNA derived from Human Telomeric Repeats
The design and development of anticancer agents that act via stabilization of the telomeric G-quadruplex DNA is an active area of research because of its importance in the negative regulation of telomerase activity. Several classes of G-quadruplex DNA binding ligands have been developed so far, but they mainly act on the DNA sequences which are capable of forming a single Gquadruplex unit. In the present work, we have developed few new dimeric (Gemini) bisbenzimidazole ligands (Figure 5), in which the spacer joining the two bisbenzimidazole units have been varied using oligooxyethylene units of different length. Herein we show the interaction of each of these ligands, with the G-quadruplex DNA, derived from oligodeoxynucleotides d(T2AG3)4 and d(T2AG3)8, which fold into a monomeric and dimeric (having two folded G-tetrad units) G-quadruplex DNA, respectively. We also present evidence that the G-quadruplex DNA structure formed by these sequences in K+ solution in presence of the ligands is parallel, with unusual stability, and the spacer length between the two bisbenzimidazole units has critical role on the G-quadruplex stability, particularly on the G-quadruplex structures formed by the 48-mer sequence. The computational aspects of the ligand-G-quadruplex DNA association have also been analyzed. Interestingly, the gemini ligand having longer spacer was highly potent in the inhibition of telomerase activity than the corresponding gemini ligands having shorter spacer or the monomeric ligand. Also, the dimeric ligands are more cytotoxic toward the cancer cells than normal cells.
Figure 5. Chemical structures of the monomeric and gemini ligands used in this study.
Chapter 6. Stabilization and Structural Alteration of G-Quadruplex DNA made from Human Telomeric Repeat Mediated by Novel Benzimidazole Derivatives based on Tröger’s Base
Ligand-induced stabilization of G-quadruplex formation by the telomeric DNA single stranded 3'-overhang is a nice strategy to inhibit telomerase from catalyzing telomeric DNA synthesis and form capping telomeric ends. Herein we present the first report of the interactions of two novel bisbenzimidazoles (TBBz1 and TBBz2)(Figure 6) based on the Tröger’s base skeleton with the G-quadruplex DNA. These molecules stabilize the G-quadruplex DNA derived from a human telomeric sequence. Significantly strong binding affinity of these molecules to G-quadruplex DNA relative to duplex DNA was observed by CD spectroscopy, thermal denaturation and UV-vis titration studies. The above results obtained are in excellent agreement with the biological activity, measured in vitro using a modified TRAP assay. Additionally exposure of cancer cells to these compounds showed a remarkable decrease in the population growth. Also, it has been observed that the ligands are selectively more cytotoxic toward the cancerous cells than the corresponding noncancerous cells. To understand further, the ligand-G-quadruplex DNA complexes were investigated by computational molecular modeling. This provided additional insights on the structure activity relationship. Computational studies suggest that the adaptive scaffold not only allows these ligands to occupy the G-quartet but also binds with the grooves of the G-quadruplex DNA.
Figure 6. Chemical structures of the ligands, TBBz1 and TBBz2 used in this study,
(For structural formula pl see the abstact.pdf file.)||en_US