Photocytotoxicity And DNA Cleavage Activity Of Metal Scorpionates And Terpyridine Complexes
Scorpionate and terpyridine ligands are of importance in inorganic chemistry for their metal-binding properties. Tris-pyrazolylborate (Scorpionate) ligands that show facial binding mode and steric protection have been extensively used to synthesize complexes modeling the active site structure and biological function of various metalloproteins and as catalysts in C-H and NO activation and carbine transfer reactions. Terpyridine and modified terpyridine ligands showing meridional binding mode have been used in bioinorganic chemistry where Pt-terpyridine complexes are known to inhibit the activity of thiordoxin reductase (TrxR) besides showing interaction with G-quadruplex. The thesis work stems from our interest to use these ligand systems to design and prepare new 3-d metal-based photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agents to explore their visible light-induced DNA cleavage activity and photocytotoxicity. Efforts have been made in this thesis work to design and synthesize Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes having scorpionate (Tpph) abd terpyridine (tpy) ligands. Ternary 3d-metal complexes having Tpph and planar phenanthroline bases have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The steric encumbrance of Tpph has led to the reduction in chemical nuclease activity along with enhanced photo-induced DNA cleavage activity, particularly of the Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes. The Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of Tpph and a pyridyl ligand having a photoactive naphthalilmide moiety show molecular light-switch effect on binding to calf thymus DNA or BSA protein. The complexes do not show any chemical nuclease activity. The Cu(II) complex shows significant DNA cleavage activity in red light. The Co(II) complex displays significant photocytotoxicity in UV-A light. Ternary Cu(II) complexes of ph-tpy and heterocycylic bases are prepared and their DNA binding and cleavage activity studied. The complexes are avid binders to CT-DNA. The dipyridoquinoxaline (dpq) and dipyridophenazine (dppz) complexes are photocleavers of DNA in visible light. A significant enhancement in cytotoxicity in HeLa cancer cells is observed on exposure of the dppz complex to light. The binary Cu(II) complexes are also prepared to reduce the dark toxicity using phenyl and pyrenyl substituted terpyridine ligands. The pyrenyl substituted complex shows DNA cleavage activity in the visible light, low dark toxicity and unprecedented photocytotoxicity in visible light. The copper(II) complexes generally show dark cellular toxicity due to the presence of reducing thiols. The present terpyridine copper(II) complex having pendant pyrenyl moiety shows significant PDT effect that is similar to that of the PDT drug Photofrin. Binary Co(II) complexes show efficient DNA cleavage activity in visible light, significant photocytotoxicity in visible light and cytosolic uptake behaviour. Considering the bio-essential nature of the cobalt and copper ions, the present study opens up new strategies for designing and developing 3d-metal-based photosensitizers for their potential applications in PDT.
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