|dc.description.abstract||Pantothenate kinase (PanK) is an ubiquitous and essential enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the universal Coenzyme (CoA) biosynthesis pathway. In this step, pantothenate (Vitamin B5) is converted to 4′-phosphopantothenate, which subsequently forms CoA in four enzymatic steps. In bacteria, three types of PanK’s have been identified which exhibit wide variations in their distribution, mechanisms of regulation and affinity for substrates. Type I PanK is a key regulatory enzyme in the CoA biosynthesis pathway and its activity is feedback regulated by CoA and its thioesters. As part of a major programme on mycobacterial proteins in this laboratory, structural studies on type I PanK from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtPanK) was initiated and the structure of this enzyme in complex with a CoA derivative has been reported earlier. To further elucidate the structural basis of the enzyme action of MtPanK, several crystal structures of the enzyme in complex with different ligands have been determined in the present study. In conjunction to this, solution studies on the enzyme were also carried out.
The structures were solved using the well-established techniques of protein X-ray crystallography. The hanging drop vapour diffusion method was used for crystallization in all cases. The X-ray intensity data were collected using a MAR Research imaging plate system mounted on a Rigaku RU200 and Bruker-AXS Microstar Ultra II rotating anode X-ray generator. The data were processed using the HKL and MOSFLM and SCALA from the CCP4 suite. The structures were solved by the molecular replacement method using the program AMoRe and PHASER. Structure refinements were carried out using the programs CNS and REFMAC. Model building
was carried out using COOT and the refined structures were validated using PROCHECK and MOLPROBITY. Secondary structure was assigned using DSSP, structural superpositions were made using ALIGN and buried surface area was calculated using NACCESS. Solution studies on CoA binding and catalytic activity were carried out using Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC).
To start with, the crystal structures of the complexes of MtPanK were determined with (a) citrate, (b) the non-hydrolysable ATP analog AMPPCP and pantothenate (initiation complex), (c) ADP and phosphopantothenate resulting from phosphorylation of pantothenate by ATP in the crystal (end complex), (d) ATP and ADP, each with half occupancy, resulting from a quick soak of crystals in ATP (intermediate complex), (e) CoA, (f) ADP prepared by soaking and co-crystallization, which turned out to have identical structures and (g) ADP and pantothenate. Unlike in the case of the homologous E.coli enzyme (EcPanK), AMPPCP and ADP occupied different, though overlapping, locations in the respective complexes; the same was true of pantothenate in the initiation complex and phosphopantothenate in the end complex. The binding site of MtPanK was found to be substantially preformed while that of EcPanK exhibited considerable plasticity. The difference in the behavior of the E.coli and M.tuberculosis enzymes could be explained in terms of changes in local structure resulting from substitutions. It is unusual for two homologous enzymes to exhibit such striking differences in action and the changes in the locations of ligands exhibited by M.tuberculosis pantothenate kinase are remarkable and novel.
The movement of ligands exhibited by MtPanK during enzyme action appeared to indicate that the binding site of the enzyme was less specific for a particular type of ligand than EcPanK. Kinetic measurements of enzyme activity showed that MtPanK had dual substrate specificity for ATP and GTP, unlike the enzyme from E.coli which showed a much higher specificity for ATP. A molecular explanation for the difference in the specificities of the two homologous enzymes was provided by the crystal structures of the complexes of the M. tuberculosis enzyme with (1) GMPPCP and pantothenate (2) GDP and phosphopantothenate (3) GDP (4) GDP and pantothenate (5) AMPPCP and (6) GMPPCP and the structures of the complexes of the two enzymes involving CoA and different adenyl nucleotides. The explanation was substantially based on two critical substitutions in the amino acid sequence and the local conformational change resulting from them. Dual specificity of the type exhibited by this enzyme is rare and so are the striking difference between two homologous enzymes in the geometry of the binding site, locations of ligands and specificity.
The crystal structures of MtPanK in binary complexes with nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) and nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) provided insights about the natural location and conformation of nucleotides. In the absence of pantothenate, the NDP and the NTP bound with an extended conformation at the same site. In the presence of pantothenate, as seen in the initiation complexes, the NTP had a closed conformation and an altered location. However, the effect of the nucleotide on the conformation and the location of pantothenate were yet to be elucidated as the natural location of the ligand in MtPanK was not known. This lacuna was sought to be filled through X-ray analysis of the binary complexes of MtPanK with pantothenate and two of its derivatives, namely, pantothenol and N-nonyl pantothenamide (N9-Pan). These structures demonstrated that pantothenate, with a somewhat open conformation occupied a location similar to that occupied by phosphopantothenate in the “end” complexes, which was distinctly different from the location of pantothenate in “closed” conformation in the ternary “initiation” complexes. The conformation and the location of the nucleotide were also different in the initiation and end complexes. An invariant arginine appeared to play a critical role in the movement of ligand that took place during enzyme action. The structure analysis of the binary complexes with the vitamin and its derivatives completed the description of the locations and conformations of nucleoside di and triphosphates and pantothenate in different binary and ternary complexes. These complexes provide snapshots of the course of action of MtPanK.||en_US