Salmonellae are gram negative bacteria that cause gastroenteritis and entericfever. S. enterica is divided into seven phylogenetic groups, subspecies 1, 2,3a, 3b, and 4, 6, 7. Subspecies1 includes 1,367 serovars, some of which are commonly isolated from infected birds and mammals. The other subspecies mainly colonize cold blooded animals. Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhiandSalmonella enteritidis are some of the serovars, which belong to s.enterica species.
S. typhimurium is one of the important causes for food poisoning in humans. It causes typhoid like fever in mice. In immuno compromised patients the infection is often fatal if it is not treated with antibiotics. Clinical features of food poisoning include abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, dehydration etc. S. typhi causes typhoid fever in humans. No other host has been identified for this serovar. Main source of infection is contaminated food and water. No age is exempted but it is less common before2 years. Incubation period is 360 days. Clinical features include stepladder type fever, malaise, headache, hepato splenomegaly, coated tongue, Neutrogena etc. It may be fatal if untreated.
Among the serovars of Salmonella infecting humans S. typhimurium and S. typhi are the most important. While S. typhimurium infects many host species including birds and mammals, S. typhi is single host adapted and infects only human. The single host adaptation of S. typhi presents it with the need for establishing are servoir of infection in the community which can serve as a source of fresh infection. Also the single host adaptation of S. typhi has made it a highly specialized pathogen which has evolved certain unique genes needed for human colonization at the same time has lost a set of genes which are needed for survival in other hosts and in the highly variable external environment. This has led to the accumulation of a vast number of pseudo genesin S. Typhi. A comparative study of the two serovars is useful in many ways. Due to varied host defense systems encountered by the two serovars owing to different niche of infection the bacterial counter defense mechanisms are also different. By focusing on the differences between genes involved in the bacterial defense of host immune response we can decipher the role played by various genes in combating the antibacterial host response.
The role of TolA and peptidoglycan modification in detergent resistance of pathogenic Salmonella
The major Salmonella serovars that infect human are Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S.typhi) which cause systemic typhoid and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) which cause gastro enteritis. S. typhi resides in the gall bladder during chronic infection and S .typhimurium infects intestine .Thus both pathogens encounter high concentrations of bile and have developed mechanisms to counter it. The Tol Pal complex spanning the outermembrane and the inner cytoplasmic membrane plays an important role in maintaining the stability of the outer membrane and providing detergent resistance. The tolA gene of S. Typhi Is shorter by 27 aminoacid than S. typhimurium. The tolA gene knockout of S. typhimurium and S. typhi differed in their tritonX resistance behavoiur, morphology and low osmolality tolerance. S. typhi tolA was unable to complement the tolA defect in S. typhimurium which could probably due to the difference in the peptidoglycan layer. An analys is of the peptidoglycan modifying genes of both the serovars revealed that dacD, pbgP, ynhG are different. dacD, pbgP genes are pseudogenes in S. typhi and ynhG has a major deletion in S. typhi. Further studies reveal that a double knockout of dacD and pbpG in S. typhimurium makes it sensitive to low osmolality similar to S. typhi. Based on these results we propose a mechanism, where shortening of TolA increases detergent resistance by bringing the outer membrane into closer contact with the peptidoglycan layer, but this is achieved at the cost of reduced Lpp (Bruan’slipoprotein) peptidoglycan linkage which plays a major role in low osmolality tolerance. The pathogen S. typhi is highly adapted to the human host and cannot infect any other host. The single host adaptation and the need to survive in high concentrations of bile have made S. typhi to acquire higher bile resistance at the cost of lowered osmotic tolerance through shortening TolA and reduced Lpp and peptidoglycan binding.
Development of a DNA vaccine against Salmonella
The immune response against Salmonella is multifaceted involving both the innate and the adaptive immune system. The characterization of specific Salmonella antigens inducing immune response could critically contribute to the development of epitope based vaccines for Salmonella. We have tried to identify aprotective Tcellepitope (s) of Salmonella, as cell mediated immunity conferred by CD8+T cells is the most crucial subset conferring protective immunity against Salmonella. It being a proven fact that secreted proteins are better in inducing cell mediated immunity than cell surface and cytosolic antigens, we have analyzed all the GenBank annotated Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 secreted proteins of S. typhimurium and S. typhi. They were subjected to BIMAS and SYFPEITHI analysis to map MHCI and MHC II binding epitopes. The huge profile of possible T cell epitopes obtained from the two classes of secreted proteins were tabulated and using a scoring system that considers the binding affinity and promiscuity of binding to more than one allele, SopB and SifB were chosen for experimental confirmation in murine immunization model. The entire Sop Band SifB genes were cloned into DNA vaccine vectors and were administered along with live attenuated Salmonella and it was found that SopB vaccination reduced the bacterial burden of organs by about 5fold on day4 and day8 after challenge with virulent Salmonella and proved to be a more efficient vaccination strategy than live attenuated bacteria alone.
PCR based diagnosis and Serovar Determination of Blood Borne Salmonella
Typhoid fever is becoming an ever increasing threat in the developing countries. We have improved considerably upon the existing PCR based diagnosis method by designing primers against a region which is unique to S. typhiand S. paratyphiA, corresponding to the gene STY0312 in S. typhi and its homolog SPA2476 in S. paratyphiA. An additional set of primers amplify another region in S. typhi CT18 and S. typhiTy2 corresponding to the region between the genes STY0313 toSTY0316 but which is absent in S.paratyphi A. The threat of false negative result arising due to mutation in hypervariable genes has been reduced by targeting a gene unique to typhoidal Salmonella as a diagnostic marker. The amplified region has been tested for genomic stability by amplifying them from clinical is olates of patients from various geographical locations in India, there by showing that this region is potentially stable. These set of primers can also differentiate between S. typhiCT18, S. typhiTy2 and S. paratyphi A which have stable deletions in this specific locus. The PCR assay designed in this study has a sensitivityof95%ascompared to the Widal test which had only 63%. As observed, in certain cases the PCR assay was more sensitive than the blood culture test as the PCR based detection could also detect dead bacteria.||en_US