Semi-Markov Processes In Dynamic Games And Finance
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Two different sets of problems are addressed in this thesis. The first one is on partially observed semi-Markov Games (POSMG) and the second one is on semi-Markov modulated financial market model. In this thesis we study a partially observable semi-Markov game in the infinite time horizon. The study of a partially observable game (POG) involves three major steps: (i) construct an equivalent completely observable game (COG), (ii) establish the equivalence between POG and COG by showing that if COG admits an equilibrium, POG does so, (iii) study the equilibrium of COG and find the corresponding equilibrium of original partially observable problem. In case of infinite time horizon game problem there are two different payoff criteria. These are discounted payoff criterion and average payoff criterion. At first a partially observable semi-Markov decision process on general state space with discounted cost criterion is studied. An optimal policy is shown to exist by considering a Shapley’s equation for the corresponding completely observable model. Next the discounted payoff problem is studied for two-person zero-sum case. A saddle point equilibrium is shown to exist for this case. Then the variable sum game is investigated. For this case the Nash equilibrium strategy is obtained in Markov class under suitable assumption. Next the POSMG problem on countable state space is addressed for average payoff criterion. It is well known that under this criterion the game problem do not have a solution in general. To ensure a solution one needs some kind of ergodicity of the transition kernel. We find an appropriate ergodicity of partially observed model which in turn induces a geometric ergodicity to the equivalent model. Using this we establish a solution of the corresponding average payoff optimality equation (APOE). Thus the value and a saddle point equilibrium is obtained for the original partially observable model. A value iteration scheme is also developed to find out the average value of the game. Next we study the financial market model whose key parameters are modulated by semi-Markov processes. Two different problems are addressed under this market assumption. In the first one we show that this market is incomplete. In such an incomplete market we find the locally risk minimizing prices of exotic options in the Follmer Schweizer framework. In this model the stock prices are no more Markov. Generally stock price process is modeled as Markov process because otherwise one may not get a pde representation of price of a contingent claim. To overcome this difficulty we find an appropriate Markov process which includes the stock price as a component and then find its infinitesimal generator. Using Feynman-Kac formula we obtain a system of non-local partial differential equations satisfied by the option price functions in the mildsense. .Next this system is shown to have a classical solution for given initial or boundary conditions. Then this solution is used to have a F¨ollmer Schweizer decomposition of option price. Thus we obtain the locally risk minimizing prices of different options. Furthermore we obtain an integral equation satisfied by the unique solution of this system. This enable us to compute the price of a contingent claim and find the risk minimizing hedging strategy numerically. Further we develop an efficient and stable numerical method to compute the prices. Beside this work on derivative pricing, the portfolio optimization problem in semi-Markov modulated market is also studied in the thesis. We find the optimal portfolio selections by optimizing expected utility of terminal wealth. We also obtain the optimal portfolio selections under risk sensitive criterion for both finite and infinite time horizon.
- Mathematics (MA) 
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