Investigations Into The Synthesis, Structural And Dielectric Properties Concerning The Relaxor Behavior Of n=2 Members Of The Aurivillius Family Of Oxides
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Relaxor ferroelectrics have been a subject of intense research owing to their interesting physical properties such as high dielectric constant and giant electro-striction. Unlike the conventional lead based relaxors, the relaxors belonging to Aurivillius family of oxides have received much less attention because of the poor understanding of the origin of the relaxor behavior and high processing temperatures involved. In the present investigations, an attempt has been made to understand the origin of relaxor behavior of the materials belonging to Aurivillius family of oxides. The structure and relaxor behavior of BaBi2Nb2O9 (BBN) has been established via the XRD, electron diffraction and dielectric spectroscopy. The results are compared with that of a normal ferroelectric like SrBi2Nb2O9 belonging to the same family as well with that of a conventional relaxor like PMN. The results indicate that the dielectric behavior of BBN is significantly different from that of the conventional relaxors like BBN with very slow broadening of relaxation times and was attributed to the absence of significant polar ordering. To substantiate the existing understanding, studies have been carried out by adopting different strategies such as B-site and A-site cationic substitutions and texturing of the ceramics. Vanadium doping on B-site was found to decrease the sintering temperatures significantly. Aliovalent La3+ doping was found to affect the dielectric behavior strongly with substantial decrease of the freezing temperature and dielectric constants which shows that the relaxor behavior of BBN is highly sensitive to A-site order-disorder. The (00l) textured ceramic of pure and vanadium doped BBN was fabricated via a simple melt-quenching technique and was found to exhibit a significant dielectric and pyroelectric anisotropy. A new class of relaxor compositions (K0.5La0.5Bi2Nb2O9 & K0.5La0.5Bi2Ta2O9) have been synthesized and characterized. These new compounds exhibited interesting physical properties which are akin to that of the conventional lead based relaxors. The presence of superlattice reflections in the electron diffractin patterns recorded on these compounds establish the presence of polar nano regions of significant size. These relaxor crystallites at nano/micro level embedded in a glass matrix have been found to be very promising from their physical properties view point.
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