Analysis and Enhancement of Stability of Power Systems with Utility-scale Photovoltaic Power Plants
Priyamvada, Indla Rajitha Sai
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Owing to the negative impact of carbon emissions on environment, power systems are experiencing a paradigm shift in power generation. The fossil fuel-based generators that utilize synchronous machines are increasingly being replaced by the renewables such as Photovoltaic (PV) generators. Utility-scale PV power plants are coming up in the various parts of the world. Power electronic interface, control strategies and lack of inherent rotational element are the main factors that distinguish PV generation from Synchronous Generators (SGs). In addition, the time constants of the PV control loops and Phase Locked Loop (PLL) are of the same order unlike the SGs. The power electronic interface offers a better control over the electrical energy generated by the PV generators. However, the power electronic interface brings new challenges to power system stability. This research work focuses on addressing transient and small-signal stability issues of grid connected utility scale PV power plants. In conventional power systems, swing equation of SGs and (extended) equal area criterion are used to assess the transient stability of power system. However, the same analysis techniques may not be applicable for PV generators. In this research work, transient stability assessment criteria are developed for grid connected PV generator with two different control strategies viz., PQ control and Vdc - Q control (with/without support functionalities). The proposed criteria are developed considering the outer and inner control loop, PLL and filter dynamics of PV generator. PSCAD simulations are carried out on a two-bus system and a modified IEEE-39 bus system to validate the proposed criterion. The stability criteria are found to effectively assess the stability of grid connected utility scale PV generators. The power transfer capability of transmission network is limited by thermal limits, voltage limits and stability limits. Power transfer capability of transmission lines emanating from PV generators considering thermal and voltage limits is explored well in the literature. However, there is a lack of literature on stability constrained power transfer capability limit. In this research work, adaptive control-based tuning laws are proposed for grid connected PV generators to improve the stability constrained power transfer capability. The adaptive tuning laws are derived based on the Lyapunov energy function analysis. The Lyapunov functions are formulated using the summation of squares of the PI block errors and difference between the PI parameter values from their optimal values. Time domain simulations are carried out on a two-bus system and a modified IEEE-39 bus system to validate the proposed tuning laws. From time domain simulations, it is observed that the proposed tuning laws are found to effectively improve the stability limit on power transfer to the voltage limit. The increased penetration of PV generations into power systems has also brought qualitative changes in small signal stability of power systems. Two new categories of oscillation modes are introduced into power systems which have participation from PV state variables. As the mode shape of the two new categories of oscillation modes is different from that of SG modes, the power system stabilizer design should be revisited. In this research work, H1 control-based power system stabilizer is developed considering the controllability and observability of the new categories of oscillation modes. The effectiveness of the developed stabilizer in providing sufficient damping to the new categories of oscillation modes is validated through PSCAD simulations on a modified IEEE-39 bus system. As power systems are large interconnected systems, the increased penetration of PV generation has resulted in notable interaction among PV generators and SGs. Investigation of the interaction among generators is important to understand the dynamic behaviour of overall power system when subjected to disturbances. This research work is carried out to understand the interaction among PV and SGs. The interaction is analysed through investigation of interaction among oscillation modes of PV generation and SG. A mathematical formulation to quantify the interaction among the oscillation modes of PV generations and SGs is proposed. A modified IEEE-39 bus system is considered to carry out the interaction study and validate the results obtained from mathematical formulations.