Addressing Subtle Physicochemical Features Exhibited by Molecular Crystals Via Experimental and Theoretical Charge Density Analysis
The thesis entitled “Addressing subtle physicochemical features exhibited by molecular crystals via Experimental and Theoretical Charge Density Analysis” consists of five chapters. An introductory note provides a brief description of experimental and theoretical charge density methodology, followed by its utilization in obtaining certain physical and chemical properties in molecular crystals. Chapter 1 addresses not so easily accessed molecular property arising due to electron conjugation, highlighting antiaromaticity in tetracyclones. A systematic study of six tetracyclone derivatives with electron withdrawing and electron donating substituents has been carried out using experimental and theoretical charge density analysis. A three pronged approach based on quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS), and source function (SF) has been employed to establish the degree of antiaromaticity of the central five-membered ring in all the derivatives. Electrostatic potentials mapped on the is density surface reveal the finer effects of different electron withdrawing and electron donating substituents on the carbonyl group. Chapter 2 presents a temperature induced reversible first order single crystal to single crystal phase transition (Room temperature Orthorhombic, P22121 to low temperature Monoclinic, P21) in a hybrid peptide, Boc-γ4(R)Val-Val-OH. The thermal behavior accompanying the phase transition of the dipeptide crystal was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, visual changes in birefringence of the sample during heating and cooling cycles on a hot-stage microscope with polarized light. Variable-temperature unit cell check measurements from 300 to 100 K showed discontinuity in the volume and cell parameters near the transition temperature, supporting the first-order behavior. The reversible nature of the phase transition is traced to be due to an interplay between enthalpy and entropy. Chapter 3 brings out an unusual stabilizing interaction involving a cooperative -hole and ¬hole character in a short NCS···NCS bond. This chapter describes structural features of four isothiocyanate derivatives, FmocXCH2NCS; X=Leu, Ile, Val and Ala. Among these it is observed that only FmocLeuCH2NCS which crystallizes in a tetragonal space group, P41, (a=b=12.4405(5) Å; c= 13.4141(8) Å) transforms isomorphously to a low temperature form, P41, (a=b=17.4665(1) Å; c= 13.1291(1) Å). The characteristics of the phase transition have been monitored by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, variable temperature IR and temperature dependent unit cell measurements. The short NCS···NCS intermolecular interaction (3.296(1) Å) is analyzed based on detailed experimental charge density analysis which reveals the nature of this stabilizing interaction. Chapter 4 explains a comparative study of syn and anti conformations of carboxylic acids in peptides from both structural aspect and charge density features. Single crystal structures of four peptides having syn conformations [BocLeuγ4(R)Valγ4(R)ValOH, BocLeuγ4(R)ValLeuγ4(R)ValOH, Boc3(S)Leu3(S)LeuOH] and one with anti conformation, BocLeuγ4(R)ValValOH have been analyzed. Experimental charge density analysis has been carried out exclusively on BocLeuγ4(R)ValValOH having anti form, because of its rare occurrence in literature. However, low temperature datasets on the four peptides with syn conformations were collected and theoretical charge density analysis has been carried out on two of these compounds. Electrostatic potentials mapped on is density surface bring out a significant difference at the oxygen atoms of the carboxyl group in the two conformations. However, lone pair orientation of different types of Oxygen atoms in the two forms (urethane, amide, acid) doesn’t exclusively indicate the differences in the corresponding charge density features. Chapter 5 addresses the issue of how sensitive are the charge density features associated with amino acid residues when the backbone conformational angles are varied. Three model systems, 1, L-alanyl–L-alanyl–L-alanine dehydrate; 2, anhydrous L-alanyl–L-alanyl–L¬alanine and 3, cyclo-(D,L-Pro)2(L-Ala)4 monohydrate have been chosen for this evaluation. Compound 1 has ant parallel alignment of tripe tide strands, and compound 2 has parallel alignment. All the alanine residues in compound 1 and 2 are in the -sheet region of the Ramachandran plot, whereas, the four Alanine residues in the cyclic hex peptide 3 span different regions of the Ramachandran plot. Theoretical multipole modelling has been carried out in order to explore the plausibility of transferring multipole parameters across different regions of Ramachandran Plot. Appendix I contains a brief description of charge shift bonding in Ph-CH2-Se-Se-CH2-Ph, as determined based on both experimental and theoretical charge density analysis. Appendix II contains a reprint of a published article on “Conformation-Changing Aggregation in Hydroxyacetone: A Combined Low-Temperature FTIR, Jet, and Crystallographic Study”.