|dc.description.abstract||The importance of weak interactions between molecules to life and all parts of science and engineering is unquestionable and there have been an enormous interest in such interactions. Among all the weak interactions, hydrogen bonding is the most popular and it has enjoyed the most attention of the scientific community. Halogen bonding is gaining more popularity in the recent time, as its importance to biological molecules and crystal engineering has been recognized. In this work, a Pulsed Nozzle Fourier Transform Microwave spectrometer has been used to study the rotational spectra of molecules and hydrogen bonded complexes. Structural information is obtained from the rotational spectra. Ab initio electronic structure, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Atoms in Molecules (AIM) theoretical methods have been used to characterize the weak intermolecular interactions, including hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding and lithium bonding.
In Chapter I, introduction to weak interaction is discussed. A brief introduction of different experimental and theoretical methods is presented.
Chapter II discusses in detail about the different methods used to investigate weak interaction, both experimentally and theoretically, in this work. In our lab, we use Pulsed Nozzle Fourier Transform Microwave spectrometer to determine the complexes spectra and structures. We generate MW radiation with the help of electronic devices and use Balle-Flygare cavity where molecular interaction takes place. We inject the sample inside the cavity in form of supersonic molecular beam through a pulsed nozzle, parallel to MW radiation. The detailed instrumental discussion about MW spectrometer has been done in this Chapter. We extensively use theoretical methods to probe weak bonding and characterize them. Ab initio and DFT calculations are used to optimize the structure of the complexes and predict their rotational spectra. Atoms in Molecules theory and Natural Bond Orbital theory are then used with the ab initio wave functions to understand the weak interactions in depth. Discussion about these methods and software used for the analysis will also be discussed.
In Chapter III, rotational spectrum of Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) monomer is presented. HFIP is an interesting molecule as it offers many possibilities as hydrogen bond donor and acceptor. It has the OH group which can both accept/donate a hydrogen bond and in addition it has a very acidic CH group. It is the only solvent that can dissolve polyethylene terephthalate, a normally difficult-to-dissolve polymer, and clearly it has unique interactions with this difficult to solve polymer. We have recorded and fitted rotational spectra of five different isotopologues of HFIP which helped us in determining its accurate structure. Though, it can exist in synclinical and antiperiplanar conformers, only the later has been detected in our molecular beam spectrometer. This happens to be the global minimum structure of HFIP. Combination of experimental observations and ab initio calculations provided many evidences which confirmed the presence of antiperiplanar conformer, experimentally. Since, the rotational constants for both conformers were very close, it was always challenging to pick up one conformer as experimentally observed structure. A prototype molecule, hexafluoroisobutene (HFIB) shows doubling of rotational transitions due to tunnelling/counter rotation of the two CF3 groups through a small barrier. Interestingly, such motion has no barrier in HFIP and hence no splitting in transitions was observed. Potential energy surface calculated for counter-rotation of the two CF3 groups is consistent with this observation. This barrier is different from eclipsed-staggered exchange barrier, observed by 60 counter rotation of both terminal CF3 groups, for which the barrier height is very large and tunnelling cannot occur. The origin/lack of the small barrier in HFIB/HFIP has been explored using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) method which helped in understanding intramolecular bonding in these molecules. Along with HFIB, other prototype molecules were also considered for the analysis e.g. hexafluoroacetone, hexafluoroacetone imine, hexafluoroisobutane, hexafluoroisopropylamine. In the last section of this Chapter, we have discussed the generalized behaviour of molecules which have CF3-C-CF3 groups.
In Chapter IV, rotational spectrum of HFIP•••H2O complex is presented. Aqueous solution of HFIP stabilizes α-helical structure of protein, a unique property of this solvent. The main objective of this Chapter is understanding the interaction between HFIP and H2O. Microwave spectrum of HFIP•••H2O was predicted and recorded. Three isotopologues were investigated. Though, this complex could in principle have several structural conformers, detailed ab initio calculations predicted two conformers and only one was observed. Though, the rotational constants for both structures were somewhat similar, lack of a dipole transitions, larger intensity of b-dipole transitions over c-dipole transitions and isotopic substitution analysis positively confirm the structure in which HFIP acts as the hydrogen bond donor. The linear O-H•••O hydrogen bond in HFIP-H2O complex is significantly stronger than that in water dimer with the H•••O distance of 1.8 Å. The other structure for this complex, not found in experiment is cyclic with both C-H•••O and O-H•••O hydrogen bonds, both of which are bent with H•••O distances in the range 2.2-2.3 Å. Both AIM and NBO calculations have been used to characterize the hydrogen bond in this complex.
In Chapter V, a comprehensive study on hydrogen bonding, chlorine bonding and lithium bonding have been done. A typical hydrogen bonded complex can be represented as A•••H-D, where A is the acceptor unit and H-D is the hydrogen bond donor unit. Many examples are known in literature, both experimentally and theoretically, in which the A-H-D bond angles are not linear. Deviation from linearity also results in the increase in A•••H bond lengths, as noted above for the two structures of HFIP•••H2O complex. Though this has been known for long, the distance between A and D being less than the sum of their van der Waals ‘radii’ is still used as a criterion for hydrogen bonding by many. Our group has recently shown the inappropriateness of van der Waals ‘radii’ and defined hydrogen bond ‘radii’ for various donors, DH and A. A strong correlation of DH hydrogen bond ‘radii’ with the dipole moment was noted. In this Chapter, we explored in detail the angular dependence of hydrogen bond ‘radii’. Electron density topology around DH (D = F, Cl and OH) has been analyzed in detail and shown to be elliptical. For these molecules, the two constants for H atom treated as an ellipse have been determined. It is hoped that these two constants will be used widely in analyzing and interpreting H•••A distances, as a function of D-H•••A angles, rather than one ‘radius’ for H and acceptor atoms.
In Chapter VI, Detailed analysis and comparisons among hydrogen bond, chlorine bond and lithium bond, have been done. Hydrogen can be placed in group 1 as well as group 17 of the periodic table. Naturally, lithium bonding and halogen bonding have been proposed and investigated. There have been numerous investigations on the nature of hydrogen bonding and the physical forces contributing to it. In this Chapter, a total of one hundred complexes having H/Cl/Li bonding have been investigated using ab initio, AIM and NBO theoretical methods. Various criteria proposed in the literature have been examined. A new criterion has been proposed for the characterization of closed shell (ionic/electrostatic) and open shell (covalent) interactions. It has been well known that the D-H bond weakens on the D-H•••A hydrogen bond formation and H•••A bond acquires a fractional covalency. This Chapter shows that for D-Li•••A complexes, the ionicity in D-Li is reduced as the Li•••A bond is formed This comprehensive investigation of H/Cl/Li bonding has led us to propose a conservation of bond order, considering both ionic and covalent contributions to both D-X and X•••A bonds, where DX is the X-bond donor and A is the acceptor with X = H/Cl/Li.
Hydrogen bond is well understood and its definition has been recently revised [Arunan et al. Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 83, pp. 1619–1636, 2011]. It states “The X–H•••Y hydrogen bond angle tends toward 180° and should preferably be above 110°”. Using AIM theory and other methods, this fact is examined and presented in Appendix A. In second part of appendix A, a discussion about calling H3¯ complex as trihydrogen bond and its comparison with FHF¯ complex, is presented. In Appendix B, there is tentative prediction and discussion about the HFIP dimer. Condense phase studies show that HFIP have strong aggregation power to form dimer, trimer etc. During, HFIP monomer study, we have unassigned lines which are suspected to be from HFIP dimer. These are tabulated in the Appendix B as well.||en_US