Design, Development and Applications R & D on Substrate-Integrated Lead-Carbon Hybrid Ultracapacitors
Electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors or ultracapacitors are potential energy storage devices that could help bringing major advances in future energy storage applications. Unlike batteries that store energy in chemical reactants capable of generating charge, electrochemical capacitors store energy directly through charge separation. Most electrochemical capacitors rely on carbon-based structures utilizing electrical double-layer capacitance effect. By contrast, a pseudocapacitor relies on charge stored due to fast faradaic charge-transfer processes with surface atoms. A combination of faradaic and non-faradaic components would generate hybrid electrochemical capacitors or hybrid ultracapacitors that attain high capacitance for pulse power and sustained energy. This thesis comprises studies pertaining to design, development and applications R&D on substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors. The thesis comprises ten chapters. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction on essentials of electrochemical capacitors explaining their operating principles, classification and applications. Chapter 2 describes studies on materials for electrical double-layer capacitors. Activated carbons are the most common materials for electrical double-layer capacitors. Various activated carbon samples are screened as suitable materials for electrical double-layer capacitor followed by their optimization under varying experimental conditions to form the negative plate in the substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitor. Chapter 3 deals with the studies on design and development of 2 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors with flooded, absorbent-glass-mat and silica-gel sulfuric acid electrolyte configurations. Lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors comprise substrate-integrated lead dioxide sheets as positive plates and high surface-area-carbon-coated graphite-sheets as negative plates. Operating principle for 2 V lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors is explained and optimization of their operating conditions along with their electrochemical performance is studied. Chapter 4 is a study on the integration of 2 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors to 12 V devices. 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors with flooded, absorbent-glass-mat and silica gel sulfuric acid electrolyte are developed by connecting six 2 V cells in series. These hybrid ultracapacitors exhibit high power-density values and excellent cycle-life. The problem of uneven performance among the six 2 V cells in the 12 V hybrid ultracapacitors is addressed and resolved by applying voltage-management cell-balancing circuitry. Chapter 5 details the studies on kilo-Farad range 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors. The hybrid ultracapacitors are performance tested through a standard protocol. Thermal runaway in these hybrid ultracapacitors at high load currents is studied by thermal imaging. Studies on performance comparison between 12 V lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors with substrate-integrated and conventional pasted-positive plates are presented in Chapter 6. For substrate-integrated-positive plate lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors, capacitance and energy-density values are lower but power-density values are higher than pasted-positive plate configuration due to their shorter response-time. Accordingly, internal resistance values are lower for substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors. Both types of lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors exhibit similar faradaic efficiency and cycle-life in excess of 100,000 pulse charge/discharge cycles with only a nominal loss in their capacitance values. Chapter 7 is a study on the design and development of low-cost substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors using poly-aniline organic metal. The hybrid ultracapacitor employs flexible exfoliated graphite sheets as negative plate current-collectors, which are coated with a thin layer of poly-aniline to provide good adhesivity to activated carbon layer and good substrate-conductivity. These ultracapacitors are estimated to cost about 4 US$/Wh as compared to 20-30 US$/Wh for presently available commercial ultracapacitors. In Chapter 8, an application R&D study on the suitability of a substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitor bank in powering medical gadgets is described. A practical application that provides 30 W power back-up to medical gadgets for use in grid-power-deficient rural areas is presented. Chapter 9 is another application R&D study in realizing a photovoltaic stand-alone lighting system using substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors. At present, harnessing solar electricity generated through photovoltaic cells with lead-acid batteries remains the most compelling option. But lead-acid batteries have encountered problems in photovoltaic installations, mainly due to their premature failure. To circumvent this problem, substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors are developed for solar energy storage for a lighting application. The last Chapter of the thesis comprises field studies on substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors. In the study, hybrid ultracapacitors are installed for lighting applications for field tests. Grid-power chargers and mechanical dynamos are introduced as fast-charging tools for hybrid ultracapacitors. It is hoped that the studies presented in this thesis would constitute a worthwhile contribution to science and technology of electrochemical capacitors. Considering the technology need, availability, safety and cost, substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors are set to play a seminal role in future energy storage and management.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Role Of Surface And Inter-particle Spacing On Optical Properties Of Single And Hybrid Nanoparticle Assemblies Haridas, M (2013-07-03)Optical properties of nanoscopic materials have been intensively perused over last couple of decades due to their tunable optical properties. Recent interests in this field have been mainly focused on the preparation of ...
Gupta, Satyajit (2018-04-16)The ultra high barrier films for packaging find applications in a wide variety of areas where moisture and oxygen barrier is required for improved shelf-life of food/beverage products and for microbial free pharmaceutical ...
Nanostructured Hybrids with Engineered Interfaces for Efficient Electro, Photo and Gas Phase Catalytic Reactions Leelavati, A (2018-07-18)Catalysis using nanostructures has been a topic of substantial interest for fundamental studies and for practical applications in energy and environmental sectors. The growing demand for production of energy and in the ...