Organic Fluorine in Crystal Engineering : Consequences on Molecular and Supramolecular Organization
Dikundwar, Amol G
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The thesis entitled “Organic fluorine in crystal engineering: Consequences on molecular and supramolecular organization” consists of six chapters. The main theme of the thesis is to address the role of substituted fluorine atoms in altering the geometrical and electronic features in organic molecules and its subsequent consequences on crystal packing. The thesis is divided into three parts. Part I deals with compounds that are liquids under ambient conditions, crystal structures of which have been determined by the technique of in situ cryocrystallography. Part II demonstrates the utilization of in situ cryocrystallography to study kinetically trapped metastable crystalline phases that provide information about crystallization pathways. In part III, crystal structures of a series of conformationally flexible molecules are studied to evaluate the consequences of fluorine substitution on the overall molecular conformation. The genesis and stabilization of a particular molecular conformation has been rationalized in terms of variability in intermolecular interactions in the crystalline state. Part I. In situ cryocrystallography: Probing the solid state structures of ambient condition liquids. Chapter 1 discusses the crystal structures of benzoyl chloride and its fluorinated analogs. These compounds have been analysed for the propensity of adoption of Cl···O halogen bonded dimers and catemers. The influence of conformational and electronic effects of sequential fluorination on the periphery of the phenyl ring has been quantified in terms of the most positive electrostatic potential, VS,max (corresponding to σ-hole) on the Cl-atom. It is shown that fluorine also exhibits “amphoteric” nature like other heavier halogens, particularly in presence of electron withdrawing groups. Although almost all the derivatives pack through C–H···O, C–H···F, C–H···Cl, Cl···F, C–H···π and π···π interactions, the compound 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoyl chloride exhibited a not so commonly observed Cl···O halogen bonded catemer. On the other hand, the proposed Cl···O mediated dimer is not observed in any of the structures due to geometrical constraints in the crystal lattice. Chapter 2 presents the preferences of fluorine to form hydrogen bond (C–H···F) and halogen bonds (X···F; X= Cl, Br, I). Crystal structures of all three isomers of chloro-, bromo-and iodo-fluorobenzene have been probed in order to gain insights into packing interactions preferred by fluorine and other heavier halogens. It has been observed that homo halogen…halogen (Cl···Cl, Br···Br and I···I) contacts prevail in most of the structures with fluorine being associated with the hydrogen atom forming C–H···F hydrogen bond. The competition between homo and hetero halogen bonds (I···I vs I···F) is evident from the packing polymorphism exhibited by 4-iodo fluorobenzene observed under different cooling protocols. The crystal structures of pentafluoro halo (Cl, Br, I) benzenes were also determined in order to explore the propensity of formation of homo halogen bonds over hetero halogen bonds. Different dimeric and catemeric motifs based on X···F and F···F interactions were observed in these structures. Chapter 3 focuses on the effect of different cooling protocols in generating newer polymorphs of a given liquid. The third polymorph (C2/c, Z'=6) of phenylacetylene was obtained by sudden quenching of the liquid filled in capillary from a hot water bath (363 K) to the nitrogen bath (< 77 K). Also, different polymorphs were obtained for both 2¬fluoro phenylacetylene (Pna21, Z'=1) and 3-fluoro phenylacetylene (P21/c, Z'=3) when crystallized by sudden quenching in contrast to the generally followed method of slow cooling which results in isostructural forms (P21, Z'=1). The rationale for these kinetically stable “arrested” crystalline configurations is provided in part II of the thesis. Part II. Tracing crystallization pathways via kinetically captured metastable forms. Chapter 4 explains the utilization of the new approach of sudden quenching of liquids (detailed in chapter 3) to obtain kinetically stable (metastable) crystalline phases that appear to be closer to the unstructured liquids. Six different examples namely, phenylacetylene, 2-fluorophenylacetylene, 3-fluorophenylacetylene, 4-fluorobenzoyl chloride, 3-chloro fluorobenzene and ethyl chloroformate are discussed in this context. In each case, different polymorphs were obtained when the liquid was cooled slowly (100 K/h) and when quenched sharply in liquid nitrogen. The relationship between these metastable forms and the stable forms (obtained by slow cooling) combined with the mechanistic details of growth of stable forms from metastable forms provides clues about the crystallization pathways. Part III. Conformational analysis in the solid state: Counterbalance of intermolecular interactions with molecular and crystallographic symmetries. Chapter 5 describes the crystal structures of a series of conformationally flexible molecules namely, acetylene and diacetylene spaced aryl biscarbonates and biscarbamates. While most of the molecules adopt commonly anticipated anti (transoid) conformation, some adopt unusual cisoid and gauche conformations. It is shown that the unusually twisted conformation of one of the compounds [but-2-yne-bis(2,3,4,5,6¬pentafluorocarbonate)] is stabilized mainly by the extraordinarily short C–H···F intermolecular hydrogen bond. The strength of this rather short C–H···F hydrogen bond has been authenticated by combined single crystal neutron diffraction and X-ray charge density analysis. It has also been shown that the equi-volume relationship of H-and F-atoms (H/F isosterism) can be explored to access various possible conformers of a diacetylene spaced aryl biscarbonate. While biscarbonates show variety of molecular conformations due to absence of robust intermolecular interactions, all the biscarbamates adopt anti conformation where the molecules are linked with antiparallel chains formed with N–H···O=C hydrogen bonds. Chapter 6 presents a unique example where the commonly encountered crystallographic terms namely, high Z' structure, polymorphism, phase transformation, disorder, isosterism and isostructuralism are witnessed in a single molecular species (parent compound benzoylcarvacryl thiourea and its fluorine substituted analogs). The origin of all these phenomenon has been attributed to the propensity of formation of a planar molecular dimeric chain mediated via N–H···O [R2 (12)] and N–H···S [R2 (8)] dimers.
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