Synthesis, Structure and Catalytic Properties of Pd2+, Pt2+ and Pt4+ Ion Substituted TiO2
Mukri, Bhaskar Devu
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After introducing fundamentals of catalysis with noble metal surfaces especially Pt metal for CO oxidation and subsequent developments on nano-crystalline Pt metals supported on oxide supports, an idea of Pt ion in reducible oxide supports acting as adsorption sites is proposed in chapter 1. Idea of red-ox cycling of an ion in an oxide matrix is presented taking Cu ion in YBa2Cu3O7 as an example. Noble metal ions in reducible oxides such as CeO2 or TiO2 acting as adsorption sites and hence a red-ox catalyst was arrived at from chemical considerations. Among several reducible oxide supports, TiO2 was chosen from crystal structure and electronic structure considerations. A good redox catalyst for auto exhaust and related applications should have high oxygen storage capacity (OSC). Any new material that can work as a redox catalyst should be tested for its OSC. Therefore we designed and fabricated a temperature programmed reduction by hydrogen (H2¬TPR) system to measure OSC. This is presented in chapter 2. We have synthesized a number of oxides by solution combustion method. Structures were determined by powder XRD and Rietveld refinement methods. Fe2O3, Fe2-xPdxO3-δ, Cu1-xMnAl1+xO4, LaCoO3, LaCo1-xPdxO3-δ, CeO2, Ce1¬xPdxO2-δ, TiO2, Ti1-xPdxO2-δ and many other oxide systems were synthesized and their structures were determined. OSC of these systems were determined employing the H2/TPR system. TPR studies were carried out for several redox cycles in each case. Except Pd ion substituted CeO2 and TiO2 other oxide systems decomposed during redox cycling. Pd ion substituted TiO2 gave highest OSC and also it was stable paving way to choose this system for further study. In chapter 3, we have described lattice oxygen of TiO2 activation by the substitution of Pd ion in its lattice. Ti1-xPdxO2-x (x = 0.01 to 0.03) have been synthesized by solution combustion method crystallizing in anatase TiO2 structure. Pd is in +2 oxidation state and Ti is in +4 oxidation state in the catalyst as seen by XPS. Pd is more ionic in TiO2 lattice compared to Pd in PdO. Oxygen storage capacity defined by ‘amount of oxygen that is used reversibly to oxidize CO’ is as high as 5100 μmol/g of Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97. Oxygen is extracted by CO to CO2 in absence of feed oxygen even at room temperature. Rate of CO oxidation is 2.75 μmol.g-1.s-1 at 60 0C over Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 and C2H2 gets oxidized to CO2 and H2O at room temperature. Catalyst is not poisoned on long time operation of the reactor. Such high catalytic activity is due to activated lattice oxygen created by the substitution of Pd ion as seen from first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations with 96 atom supercells of Ti32O64, Ti31Pd1O63, Ti30Pd2O62 and Ti29Pd3O61. The compounds crystallize in anatase TiO2 structure with Pd2+ ion in nearly square planar geometry and TiO6 octahedra are distorted by the creation of weakly bound oxygens. Structural analysis of Ti31Pd1O63 which is close to 3% Pd ion substituted TiO2 shows that bond valence of oxygens associated with both Ti and Pd ions in the lattice is 1.87. A low bond valence of oxygen is characteristic of weak oxygen in the lattice compared to oxygens with bond valence 2 and above in the same lattice. Thus, the exact positions of activated oxygens have been identified in the lattice from DFT calculations. Pt has two stable valencies: +2 and +4. Ti ion in TiO2 is in +4 state. Is it possible to substitute Pt exclusively in +2 or +4 state in TiO2? Implications are that Pt in +2 will have oxide ion vacancies and Pt in +4 states will not have oxide ion vacancies. Indeed we could synthesize Pt ion substituted TiO2 with Pt in +2 and +4 states by solution combustion method. In chapter 4, we have shown the positive role of an oxide ion vacancy in the catalytic reaction. Ti0.97Pt2+0.03O1.97 and Ti0.97Pt4+0.03O2 have been synthesized by solution combustion method using alanine and glycine as the fuels respectively. Both are crystallizing in anatase TiO2 structure with 15 nm average crystallite size. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed Pt ions are only +2 state in Ti0.97Pt0.03O1.97 (alanine) and only in +4 state in Ti0.97Pt0.03O2 (glycine). CO oxidation rate with Ti0.97Pt2+0.03O1.97 is over 10 times higher compared to Ti0.97Pt4+0.03O2. The large shift in 100 % hydrocarbon oxidation to lower temperature was observed by Pt2+ ion substituted TiO2 from that by Pt4+ ion substituted TiO2. After reoxidation of the reduced compound by H2 as well as CO, Pt ions are stabilized in mixed valences, +2 and +4 states. The role of oxide ion vacancy in enhancing catalytic activity has been demonstrated by carrying out the CO oxidation and H2 + O2 recombination reaction in presence and in absence of O2. There is no deactivation of the catalyst by long time CO to CO2 catalytic reaction. We analyzed the activated lattice oxygens upon substitution of Pt2+ ion and Pt4+ ion in TiO2, using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations with supercells Ti31Pt1O63, Ti30Pt2O62, Ti29Pt3O61 for Pt2+ ion substitution in TiO2 and Ti31Pt1O64, Ti30Pt2O62, Ti29Pt3O61 for Pt4+ ion substitution in TiO2. We find that the local structure of Pt2+ ion has a distorted square planar geometry and that of Pt4+ ion has an octahedral geometry similar to Ti4+ ion in pure TiO2. The change in coordination of Pt2+ ion gives rise to weakly bonded oxygens and these oxygens are responsible in high rates of catalytic reaction. Thus, the high catalytic activity results from synergistic roles of oxide ion vacancy and weakly bonded lattice oxygen. In chapter 5, we have shown high rates of H2 + O2 recombination reaction by Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 catalyst coated on honeycomb monolith made up of cordierite material. This catalyst was coated on γ¬Al2O3 coated monolith by solution combustion method using dip-dry-burn process. This is a modified conventional method to coat catalysts on honeycombs. Formation of Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 catalyst on monolith was confirmed by XRD. Form the XPS spectra of Pd(3d) core level in Ti1-xPdxO2-δ, Pd ion is the formed to be +2 state. Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 showed high rates of H2 + O2 recombination compared to 2 at % Pd(metal)/γ-Al2O3, Ce0.98Pd0.02O2-δ, Ce0.98Pt0.02O2-δ, Ce0.73Zr0.25Pd0.02O2-δ and Ti0.98Pd0.02O1.98. Activation energy of H2 + O2 recombination reaction over Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 is 7.8 kcal/mole. Rates of reaction over Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 are in the range of 10 – 20 μmol/g/s at 60 0C and 4174 h-1 space velocity. Rate is orders of magnitude higher compared to noble metal catalysts. From the industrial point of view, solvent-free hydrogenation of aromatic nitro compounds to amines at nearly 1 bar pressure is an important process. In chapter 6, we showed that Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 is a good –nitro to –amine conversion catalyst under solvent-free condition at 1.2 – 1.3 bar H2 pressure. Nitrobenzene, p-nitrotoluene and 2-chloro-4-nitrotoluene are taken for the catalytic reduction reaction. The amine products were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). Further, confirmation of compounds was done by FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In presence of alcohol as solvent, 100% conversion of aromatic nitro compounds to amines took place at higher temperature and it required more times. In n-butanol solvent, 100% conversion of nitrobenzene and p-nitrotoluene occurred within 10 h and 12 h at 105 °C respectively. We have compared solvent-free reduction of p-nitrotoluene over different catalysts at 90 °C. Catalytic activity for reduction of p¬nitrotoluene over Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 is much higher than that reaction over 3 atom % Pd on TiO2 and Pd metal. Turnover frequencies (TOF) for nitrobenzene and 2-chloro-4-nitrotoluene conversion are 217 and 20 over Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 respectively. With increase of temperature, TOF of aromatic nitro compound reduction is also increased. We have compared the solvent-free reduction of aromatic nitro compound over Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 with others in the literature. Upto 3 cycles of reduction reaction, there was no degradation of Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 catalyst and stability of catalyst structure was analyzed by XRD, XPS and TEM images. Catalyst is stable under reaction condition and the structure is retained with Pd in +2 state. Finally, we have proposed the mechanism of -nitro group reduction reaction based on the structure of Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97. Instead of handling nano-crystalline materials we proceeded with coating our catalysts on cordierite honeycombs. In chapter 7, we have shown high catalytic activity towards Heck reaction over Ce0.98Pd0.02O2-δ and Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 coated on cordierite monolith. XRD patterns of Ce0.98Pd0.02O2¬δ coated on cordierite monolith were indexed to fluorite structure. Heck reaction of aryl halide with olefins over Ce0.98Pd0.02O2-δ and Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 coated on cordierite monolith were carried out at 120 °C. The products were first analyzed by GCMS and for the confirmation of compounds, we have recorded 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Heck reaction was carried out with different solvents and different bases for choosing the good base and a solvent. Hence, we have chosen K2CO3 as base and N,N¬dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. We have compared the rates of Heck reactions over these two catalysts and Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 catalyst showed much higher catalytic activity than Ce0.98Pd0.02O2-δ. With increase of temperature from 65 °C to 120 °C, the catalytic activity of Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 on Heck reaction is also increased. The catalyst was reused for next Heck reaction without significant loss of activity. A mechanism for Heck reaction of aryl halide with alkyl acrylate has been proposed based on the structure of Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97. In chapter 8, we have provided a critical review of the work presented in the thesis. Critical issues such as noble metal ion doping in TiO2 vs noble metal ion substitution, difficulty of proving the substitution of low % noble metal ion in TiO2, need for better experimental methods to study noble metal ion in oxide matrix have been discussed. Finally, conclusions of the thesis are presented.