Some Studies of Statistical Properties of Turbulence in Plasmas and Fluids
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Turbulence is ubiquitous in the flows of fluids and plasmas. This thesis is devoted to studies of the statistical properties of turbulence in the three-dimensional (3D) Hall magnetohydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) equations, the two-dimensional (2D) MHD equations, the one-dimensional (1D) hyperviscous Burgers equation, and the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to statistically homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. This is followed by an over-view of the equations we study in the subsequent chapters, the motivation for the studies and a summary of problems we investigate in chapters 2-6. In Chapter 2 we present our study of Hall-MHD turbulence . We show that a shell-model version of the 3D Hall-MHD equations provides a natural theoretical model for investigating the multiscaling behaviors of velocity and magnetic structure functions. We carry out extensive numerical studies of this shell model, obtain the scaling exponents for its structure functions, in both the low-k and high-k power-law ranges of 3D Hall-MHD, and find that the extended-self-similarity procedure is helpful in extracting the multiscaling nature of structure functions in the high-k regime, which otherwise appears to display simple scaling. Our results shed light on intriguing solar-wind measurements. In Chapter 3 we present our study of the inverse-cascade regime in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence . We present a detailed direct numerical simulation (DNS) of statistically steady, homogeneous, isotropic, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (2D MHD) turbulence. Our study concentrates on the inverse cascade of the magnetic vector potential. We examine the dependence of the statistical properties of such turbulence on dissipation and friction coefficients. We extend earlier work significantly by calculating fluid and magnetic spectra, probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the velocity, magnetic, vorticity, current, stream-function, and magnetic-vector-potential fields and their increments. We quantify the deviations of these PDFs from Gaussian ones by computing their flatnesses and hyperflatnesses. We also present PDFs of the Okubo-Weiss parameter, which distinguishes between vortical and extensional flow regions, and its magnetic analog. We show that the hyperflatnesses of PDFs of the increments of the stream-function and the magnetic vector potential exhibit significant scale dependence and we examine the implication of this for the multiscaling of structure functions. We compare our results with those of earlier studies. In Chapter 4 we compare the statistical properties of 2D MHD turbulence for two different energy injection scales. We present systematic DNSs of statistically steady 2D MHD turbulence. Our two DNSs are distinguished by kinj, the wave number at which we inject energy into the system. In our first DNS (run R1), kinj = 2 and, in the second (run R2) kinj = 250. We show that various statistical properties of the turbulent states in the runs R1 and R2 are strikingly different The nature of energy spectrum, probability distribution functions, and topological structures are compared for the two runs R1 and R2 are found to be strikingly different. In Chapter 5 we study the hyperviscous Burgers equation for very high α, order of hyperviscosity . We show, by using direct numerical simulations and theory, how, by increasing α in equations of hydrodynamics, there is a transition from a dissipative to a conservative system. This remarkable result, already conjectured for the asymptotic case α →∞ [U. Frisch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 144501 (2008)], is now shown to be true for any large, but finite, value of α greater than a crossover value α crossover. We thus provide a self-consistent picture of how dissipative systems, under certain conditions, start behaving like conservative systems, and hence elucidate the subtle connection between equilibrium statistical mechanics and out-of-equilibrium turbulent flows. In Chapter 6 we show how to use asymptotic-extrapolation and Richardson extrapolation methods to extract the exponents ξ p that characterize the dependence of the order-p moments of the velocity gradients on the Reynolds number Re. To use these extrapolation methods we must have high-precision data for such moments. We obtain these high-precision data by carrying out the most extensive, quadruple precision, pseudospectral DNSs of the Navier-Stokes equation.
- Physics (PHY) 
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