Studies on Current Hysteresis Controllers and Low Order Harmonic Suppression Techniques for IM Drives with Dodecagoal Voltage Space Vectors
Azeez, Najath Abdul
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Multilevel inverters are very popular for medium and high-voltage induction motor (IM) drive applications. They have superior performance compared to 2-level inverters such as reduced harmonic content in output voltage and current, lower common mode voltage and dv/dt, and lesser voltage stress on power switches. To get nearly sinusoidal current waveforms, the switching frequency of the conventional inverters have to be in¬creased. This will lead to higher switching losses and electromagnetic interference. The problem in using lower switching frequency is the introduction of low order harmonics in phase currents and undesirable torque ripple in the motor. The 5th and 7th harmonics are dominant for hexagonal voltage space-vector based low frequency switching. Dodecagonal voltage space-vector based multilevel inverters have been proposed as an improvement over the conventional hexagonal space vector based inverters. They achieve complete elimination of 5th and 7th order harmonics throughout the modulation range. The linear modulation range is also extended by about 6.6%, since the dodecagon is closer to circle than a hexagon. The previous works on dodecagonal voltage space vector based VSI fed drives used voltage controlled PWM (VC-PWM). Although these controllers are more popular, they have inferior dynamic performance when compared to current controlled PWM (CC¬PWM). VSIs using current controlled PWM have excellent dynamic response, inherent short-circuit protection and are simple to implement. The conventional CC-PWM tech¬niques have large switching frequency variation and large current ripple in steady-state. xix As a result, there has been signiﬁcant research interest to achieve current controlled VSI fed IM drives with constant switching frequency. Two current error space vector (CESV) based hysteresis controllers for dodecagonal voltage space-vector based VSI fed induction motor drives are proposed in this work. The proposed controllers achieve nearly constant switching frequency at steady state operation, similar to VC-SVPWM based VSI fed IM drives. They also have fast dynamic response while at the same time achieving complete elimination of ﬁfth and seventh order harmonics for the entire modulation range, due to dodecagonal voltage vector switching. The ﬁrst work proposes a nearly constant switching frequency current error space vector (CESV) based hysteresis controller for an IM drive with single dodecagonal voltage space vectors. Parabolic boundaries computed oﬄine are used in the proposed controller. An open-end winding induction motor is fed from two inverters with asymmetrical DC link voltages, to generate the dodecagonal voltage space vectors. The drive scheme is ﬁrst studied at diﬀerent frequencies with a space vector based PWM (SVPWM) control, to obtain the current error space vector boundaries. The CESV boundary at each frequency can be approximated with four parabolas. These parabolic boundaries are used in the proposed controller to limit the CESV trajectory. Due to symmetries in the parabolas only two set of parabola parameters, at diﬀerent frequencies, need to be stored. A generalized next vector selection logic, valid for all sectors and rotation direction, is used in the proposed controller. For this an axis transformation is done in all sectors, to bring the CESV trajectory to the ﬁrst sector. The sector information is obtained from the estimated fundamental stator phase voltage. The proposed controller is extensively studied using vector control at diﬀerent frequencies and transient conditions. This controller maintains nearly constant switching frequency at steady state operation, similar to VC-SVPWM inverters, while at the same time achieving better dynamic performance and complete elimination of 5th and 7th order harmonics throughout the modulation range. In the second work the nearly constant switching frequency current hysteresis con¬troller is extended to multilevel dodecagonal voltage space-vector based IM drives, with online computation of CESV boundaries. The multilevel dodecagonal space-vector dia¬gram has diﬀerent types of triangles, and the previously proposed methods for multilevel hexagonal VSI based current hysteresis controllers cannot be used directly. The CESV trajectory of the VC-SVPWM, obtained for present triangular region, is used as the reference trajectory of the proposed controller. The CESV reference boundaries are com¬puted online, using switching dwell time and voltage error vector of each applied vector. These quantities are calculated from estimated sampled reference phase voltages, which are found out from the stator current error ripple and the parameters of the induction motor. Whenever the actual current error space vector crosses the reference CESV tra¬jectory, an appropriate vector that will force it along the reference trajectory is switched. Extensive study of the proposed controller using vector control is done at diﬀerent fre¬quencies and transient conditions. This controller has all the advantages of multilevel switching like low dv/dt, lesser electromagnetic interference, lower switch voltage stress and lesser harmonic distortion, in addition to all the dynamic performance advantages of the previous controller. The third work proposes an elegant 5th and 7th order harmonic suppression tech¬nique for open end winding split-phase induction motors, using capacitor fed inverters. Split-phase induction motors have been proposed to reduce the torque and ﬂux ripples of conventional three-phase IM. But these motors have high 5th and 7th order harmonics in the stator windings due to lack of back-emf for these frequencies. A space-vector harmonic analysis of the split-phase IM is conducted and possible 5th and 7th order harmonic sup¬pression techniques studied. A simple harmonic suppression scheme is proposed, which requires the use of only capacitor fed inverters. A PWM scheme that can maintain the capacitor voltage as well as suppress the 5th and 7th order harmonics is also proposed. To test the performance of the proposed scheme, an open-loop v/f control is used on an open-end winding split-phase induction motor under no-load condition. Synchronized PWM with two samples per sector was used, for frequencies above 10 Hz. The har¬monic spectra of the phase voltages and currents were computed and compared with the traditional SVPWM scheme, to highlight the harmonic suppression. The concepts were initially simulated in Matlab/Simulink. Experimental veriﬁca¬tion was done using laboratory prototypes at low power. While these concepts maybe easily extended to higher power levels by using suitably rated devices, the control tech¬niques presented shall still remain applicable. TMS320F2812 DSP platform was used to execute the control code for the proposed drive schemes. For the ﬁrst work the output pins of the DSP was directly used to drive the inverter switches through a dead-band circuit. For the other two works, DSP outputs the sector information and the PWM signals. The PWM terminals and I/O lines of the DSP is used to output the timings and the triangle number respectively. An FPGA (XC3S200) was used to translate the sector information and the PWM signals to IGBT gate signal logic. A constant dead-time of 1.5 µs was also implemented inside the FPGA. Opto-isolated gate drivers with desaturation protection (M57962L) were used to drive the IGBTs. The phase currents and DC bus voltages were measured using hall-eﬀect sensors. An incremental shaft position encoder was also connected to the motor to measure the angular velocity. The switches were realized using 1200 V, 75 A IGBT half bridge modules.
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