Multilevel Dodecagonal Space Vector Structures and Modulation Schemes with Hybrid Topologies for Variable Speed AC Drives
Kaarthik, R Sudharshan
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MULTILEVEL inverters are the preferred choice of converters for electronic power conversion for high power applications. They are gaining popularity in variety of industrial applications including electric motor drives, transportation, energy management, transmission and distribution of power. A large portion of energy conversion systems comprises of multilevel inverter fed induction motor drives. The multilevel inverters are ideal for such applications, since the switching frequency of the devices can be kept low. In conventional two level inverters, to get nearly sinusoidal phase current waveform, the switching frequency of the inverter is increased and the harmonics in the currents are pushed higher in the frequency spectrum to reduce the size and cost of the filters. But higher switching frequency has its own drawbacks – in particular for medium voltage, high power applications. They cause large dv_/ dt stresses on the motor terminals and the switching devices, leading to increased electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems and higher switching losses. Harmonics in the motor currents can further be minimized by adopting dodecagonal voltage space vector (SV) switching (12-sided polygon). In case of dodecagonal SV switching, the fifth and seventh order (6n , 1, n = odd) harmonics are completely eliminated for the full modulation range including over modulation and twelve step operation in the motor phase voltages and currents. In addition to low order harmonic current suppression, the linear modulation range for dodecagonal SV switching is also more by 6% when compared to that of the conventional hexagonal SV switching. The dodecagonal voltage SV structure is made possible by connecting two inverters with DC-link voltages Vd and 0:366Vd on either side of an open-end winding induction motor. The dodecagonal space vector switching can be used to produce better quality phase voltage and current waveforms and overcome the problem of low order fifth and seventh harmonic currents and to improve the range for linear modulation while reducing the switching frequency of the inverters when compared to that of the conventional hexagonal space vector based inverters. This thesis focuses on three aspects of multilevel dodecagonal space vector structures (i) Two new power circuit topologies that generate a multilevel dodecagonal voltage space vector structure with symmetric triangles, (ii) A multilevel dodecagonal SV structure with nineteen concentric dodecagons, (iii) Pulse width modulation (PWM) timing calculation methods for a general N-level dodecagonal SV structure. (i) Two new power circuit topologies capable of generating multilevel dodecagonal voltage space vector structure with symmetric triangles with minimum number of DC link power supplies and floating capacitor H-bridges are proposed. The first power topology is composed of two hybrid cascaded five level inverters connected to either side of an open end winding induction machine. Each inverter consists of a three level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter, cascaded with an isolated capacitor fed H-bridge making it a five level inverter. The second topology is a hybrid topology for a normal induction motor (star or delta connected), where the power is fed to the motor only from one side. The proposed scheme retains all the advantages of multilevel topologies as well the advantages of the dodecagonal voltage space vector structure. Both topologies have inherent capacitor balancing for floating H-bridges for all modulation indices including transient operations. The proposed topologies do not require any pre-charging circuitry for startup. PWM timing calculation method for space vector modulation is also explored in this chapter. Due to the symmetric arrangement of congruent triangles within the voltage space vector structure, the timing computation requires only the sampled reference values and does not require any iterative searching, oﬀ-line computation, look-up tables or angle estimation. Experimental results for steady state operation and transient operation are also presented to validate the proposed concept. (ii) A multilevel dodecagonal voltage space vector structure with nineteen concentric do-decagons is proposed for the first time. This space vector structure is achieved by connecting two sets of asymmetric hybrid five level inverters on either side of an open-end winding induction motor. The dodecagonal structure is made possible by proper selection of DC-link voltages and switching states of the inverters. In addition to that, a generic and simple method for calculation of PWM timings using only sampled reference values (v and v ) is proposed. This enables the scheme to be used for any closed loop application like vector control. Also, a new switching technique is proposed which ensures minimum switching while eliminating the fifth and seventh order harmonics and suppressing the eleventh and thirteenth harmonics, eliminating the need for bulky filters. The motor phase voltage is a 24-stepped waveform for the entire modulation range thereby reducing the number of switchings of the individual inverter modules. Experimental results for steady state operation, transient operation including start-up have been presented and the results of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is also presented for validating the proposed concept. (iii) A method to obtain PWM timings for a general N-level dodecagonal voltage space vector structure using only sampled reference values is proposed. Typical methods that are used to find PWM timings for dodecagonal SV structures use modulation index and the reference vector angle, to get the timings T1 and T2 using trigonometric calculations. This method requires look-up tables and is diﬃcult to implement in closed loop systems. The proposed method requires only two additions to compute these timings. For multilevel case, typical iterative methods need timing calculations (matrix multiplications) to be performed for each triangle. The proposed method is generic and can be extended to any number of levels with symmetric structures and does not require any iterative searching for locating the triangle in which the tip of the reference vector lies. The algorithm outputs the triangle number and the PWM timing values of T0, T1 and T2 which can be set as the compare values for any carrier based PWM module to obtain space vector PWM like switching sequences. Simulation and experimental results for steady state and transient conditions have been presented to validate the proposed method. A 3.7 kW, 415 V, 50 Hz, 4-pole open-end winding induction motor was used for the experimental studies. The semiconductor switches that were used to realize the power circuit for the experiment were 75 A, 1200 V insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) half-bridge modules (SKM75GB12T4). Opto-isolated gate drivers with desaturation protection (M57962L) were used to drive the IGBTs. For the speed control and PWM timing computation a digital signal processor (DSP-TMS320F28335) with a clock frequency of 150 MHz was used. For modulation frequencies 10 Hz and below, a constant sampling frequency of 1 kHz was used as the frequency modulation ratio is high. For modulation frequencies above 10 Hz, synchronous PWM strategy was used. The time duration Ts is the sampling interval for which the timings T1 , T2 and T0 are calculated. As in the case of any synchronous PWM method, the duration of sampling time (Ts) is a function of the fundamental frequency of the modulating signal. In this case, Ts = 1_.fm • 12n) sec. where fm is fundamental frequency in Hertz and ‘n’ is the number of samples per 30ý dodecagonal sector. The PWM timings and the triangle data (from the DSP) is fed to field programmable gate array (FPGA) (SPARTAN XC3S200) clocked at 50 MHz where the actual gating pulses are generated. The capacitor balancing algorithm and the dead-time modules were implemented within FPGA. No external hardware was used for generation of dead-time. The dead-time block generates a constant dead-time of 2 s for all the switches. Extensive testing was done for steady state operations and transient operations including quick acceleration and start-up to validate the proposed concepts. With the advantages like extension of linear modulation range, elimination of fifth and seventh harmonics in phase voltages and currents for the full modulation range, suppression of eleventh and thirteenth harmonics in phase voltages and currents, reduced device voltage ratings, lesser dv_dt stresses on devices and motor phase windings, lower switching frequency, inherent cascaded H-bridge (CHB) capacitor balancing, the proposed space vector structures, the inverter power circuit topologies, the switching techniques and the PWM timing calculation methods can be considered as viable schemes for medium voltage, high power motor drive applications.
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