Synthesis And Investigation Of Transition Metal Oxides Towards Realization Of Novel Materials Properties
Transition metal compounds, especially the oxides, containing dn (0 ≤ n ≤ 10) electronic configuration, constitute the backbone of solid state/materials chemistry aimed at realization of novel materials properties of technological importance. Some of the significant materials properties of current interest are spin-polarized metallic ferromagnetism, negative thermal expansion, second harmonic nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibility, fast ionic and mixed electronic/ionic conductivity for application in solid state batteries, and last but not the least, high-temperature superconductivity. Typical examples for each one of these properties could be found among transition metal oxides. Thus, alkaline-earth metal (A) substituted rare-earth (Ln) manganites, Lnı.xAxMnΟ3, are currently important examples for spin-polarized magnetotransport, ZrV2O7 and ZrW2O8 for negative thermal expansion coefficient, KTiOPO4 and LiNbO3 for second harmonic NLO susceptibility, (Li, La) TiO3 and LiMn2O4 for fast-ionic and mixed electronic/ionic conductivity respectively, and the whole host of cuprates typified by YBa2Cu3O7 for high Tc superconductivity. Solid state chemists constantly endeavour to obtain structure-property relations of solids so as to be able to design better materials towards desired properties. Synthesis coupled with characterization of structure and measurement of relevant properties is a common strategy that chemists adopt for this task. The work described in this thesis is based on such a broad-based chemists' approach towards understanding and realization of novel materials properties among the family of metal oxides. A search for metallic ferro/ferrimagnetism among the transition metal perovskite oxides, metallicity and possibility of superconductivity among transition-metal substituted cuprates and second order NLO susceptibility among metal oxides containing d° cations such as Ti(IV), V(V) and Nb(V) - constitute the main focus of the present thesis. New synthetic strategies that combine the conventional ceramic approach with the chemistry-based 'soft1 methods have been employed wherever possible to prepare the materials. The structures and electronic properties of the new materials have been probed by state-of-the art techniques that include powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) together with Rietveld refinement, electron diffraction, thermogravimetry, measurement of magnetic susceptibility (including magnetoresistance), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SHG response (towards 1064 nm laser radiation), besides conventional analytical techniques for determination of chemical compositions. Some of the highlights of the present thesis are: (i) synthesis of new mixed valent [Mn(III)/Mn(IV)] perovskite-type manganites, ALaMn2O6-y (A = K, Rb) and ALaBMn3O9_y (A = Na, K; B = Ca, Sr) that exhibit ferromagnetism and magnetoresistance; (ii) investigation of a variety of ferrimagnetic double-perovskites that include ALaMnRuO6 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) and ALaFeVO6 (A = Ca, Sr) and A2FeReO6 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) providing new insights into the occurrence of metallic and nonmetallic ferrimagnetic behaviour among this family of oxides; (iii) synthesis of new K2NiF4-type oxides, La2-2xSr2XCui.xMxO4 (M = Ti, Mn, Fe, Ru) and investigation of Cu-O-M interaction in two dimension and (iv) identification of the structural rnotif(s) that gives rise to efficient second order NLO optical (SHG) response among d° oxides containing Ti(IV), V(V), Nb(V) etc., and synthesis of a new SHG material, Ba2-xVOSi2O7 having the fresnoite structure. The thesis consists of five chapters and an appendix, describing the results of the investigations carried out by the candidate. A brief introduction to transition metaloxides, perovskite oxides in particular, is presented in Chapter 1. Attention is focused on the structure and properties of these materials. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis and investigation of two series of anion-deficient perovskite oxides, ALaMn2O6-y (A = K, Rb, Cs) and ALaBMn3O9_y (A = Na, K; B = Ca, Sr). ALaMn2O6-y (A = K, Rb, Cs) series of oxides adopt 2 ap x 2 ap superstructure for K and Rb phases and √2 av x √2 ap x 2 ap superstructure (ap = perovskite subcell) for the Cs phase. Among ALaBMn3O9-y phases, the A = Na members adopt a new kind of perovskite superstructure, ap x 3 ap, while the A = K phases do not reveal an obvious superstructure of the perovskite. All these oxides are ferromagnetic (Tc ~ 260-325 K) and metallic exhibiting a giant magnetoresistance behaviour similar to alkaline earth metal substituted lanthanum manganites, Lai_xAxMnO3. However, unlike the latter, the resistivity peak temperature Tp for all the anion-deficient manganites is significantly lower than Tc. In Chapter 3, we have investigated structure and electronic properties of double-perovskite oxides, A2FeReO6 (A = Ca, Sr and Ba). The A = Sr, Ba phases are cubic (Fm3m) and metallic, while the A = Ca phase is monoclinic (P2yn) and nonmetallic. All the three oxides are ferrimagnetic with Tcs 315-385 K as reported earlier. A = Sr, Ba phases show a negative magnetoresistance (MR) (10-25 % at 5 T), while the Ca member does not show an MR effect. 57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy shows that iron is present in the high-spin Fe3+ (S = 5/2) state in Ca compound, while it occurs in an intermediate state between high-spin Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the Ba compound. Monoclinic distortion and high covalency of Ca-O bonds appear to freeze the oxidation states at Fe+3/Re5+ in Ca2FeRe O6, while the symmetric structure and ionic Ba-O bonds render the FeReO6 array highly covalent and Ba2FeReO6 metallic. Mossbauer data for Sr2FeReO6 shows that the valence state of iron in this compound is intermediate between that in Ba and Ca compounds. It is likely that Sr2FeReO6 which lies at the boundary between metallic and insulating states is metastable, phase-seperating into a percolating mixture of different electronic states at the microscopic level. In an effort to understand the occurrence of metallicity and ferrimagnetism among double perovskites, we have synthesized several new members : ALaMnFeO6 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba), ALaMnRuO6 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) and ALaVFeO6 (A = Ca, Sr) (Chapter 3). Electron diffraction reveals an ordering of Mn and Ru in ALaMnRuO6 showing a doubling of the primitive cubic perovskite cell, while ALaVFeO6 do not show an ordering. ALaMnRuOs are ferrimagnetic (Tcs ~ 200-250 K) semiconductors, but ALaVFeO6 oxides do not show a long range magnetic ordering . The present work together with the previous work on double perovskites shows that only a very few of them exhibit both metallicity and ferrimagnetism, although several of them are ferrimagnetic. For example, among the series Ba2MReO6 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), only the M = Fe oxide is both metallic and ferrimagnetic, while M = Mn and Ni oxides are ferrimagnetic semiconductors. Similarly, A2CrMoO6 (A = Ca, Sr), A2CrRe06 (A = Ca, Sr), and ALaMnRuO6 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) are all ferrimagnetic but not metallic. While ferrimagnetism of double perovskites arise from an antiferromagnetic coupling of B and B' spins through the B-O-B' bridges, the occurrence of metallicity seems to require precise matching of the energies of d-states of B and B' cations and a high covalency in the BB'O6 array that allows a facile electron-transfer between B and B', Bn++B’m+↔B(n+1)++B’(m-1)+ without an energy cost, just as occurs in ReO3 and other metallic ABO3 perovskites. In an effort to understand the Cu-O-M (M = Ti, Mn, Fe, Ru) electronic interaction in two dimension, we have investigated K2N1F4 oxides of the general formula La2-2xSr2XCui.xMxO4 (M = Ti, Mn, Fe or Ru). These investigations are described in Chapter 4. For M = Ti, only the x = 0.5 member could be prepared, while for M = Mn and Fe, the composition range is 0 < x < 1.0, and for M = Ru, the composition range is 0 < x ≤ 0.5. There is no evidence for ordering of Cu(II) and M(IV) in the x = 0.5 members. While the members of the M = Ti, Mn and Ru series are semiconducting/insulating, the members of the M = Fe series are metallic, showing a broad metal-semiconductor transition around 100 K for 0 < x ≤ 0.15 that is possibly related to a Cu(II)-O-Fe(IV) < > Cu(III)-O-Fe(III) valence degeneracy. Increasing the strontium content at the expense of lanthanum in La2-2xSr2XCui.xFexO4 for x ≤ 0.20 renders the samples metallic but not superconducting. In a search for inorganic oxide materials showing second order nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibility, we have investigated several borates, silicates and phosphates containing /ram-connected MO6 octahedral chains or MO5 square-pyramids, where M = d°: Ti(IV), Nb(V) or Ta(V). Our investigations, which are described in Chapter 5, have identified two new NLO structures: batisite, Na2Ba(TiO)2Si4O12, containing trans-connectd TiO6 octahedral chains, and fresnoite, Ba2TiOSi2O7, containing square-pyramidal T1O5. Investigation of two other materials containing square-pyramidal TiO5, viz., Cs2TiOP2O7 and Na4Ti2Si8O22. 4H2O, revealed that isolated TiO5 square-pyramids alone do not cause a second harmonic generation (SHG) response; rather, the orientation of T1O5 units to produce -Ti-O-Ti-O- chains with alternating long and short Ti-0 distances in the fresnoite structure is most likely the origin of a strong SHG response in fresnoite. Indeed, we have been able to prepare a new fresnoite type oxide, Ba2.xVOSi2O7 (x ~ 0.5) that shows a strong SHG response, confirming this hypothesis. In the Appendix, we have described three synthetic strategies that enabled us to prepare magnetic and NLO materials. We have shown that the reaction CrO3 + 2 NH4X > CrO2 + 2 NH3 + H2O + X2 (X = Br, I), which occurs quantitatively at 120-150 °C, provides a convenient method for the synthesis of CrO2. Unlike conventional methods, the method described here does not require the use of high pressure for the synthesis of this technologically important material. For the synthesis of magnetic double perovskites, we have developed a method that involves reaction of basic alkali metal carbonates with the acidic oxides (e.g. Re2O7) first, followed by reaction of this precursor oxide with the required transition metal/transition metal oxide (e.g. Fe/Fe2O3). By this method we have successfully prepared single-phase perovskite oxides, A2FeReO6, ACrMoO6 and ALaFeVO6. We have prepared the new NLO material Ba2_xV0Si207 from Ba2VOSi2O7 by a soft chemical redox reaction involving the oxidation of V(IV) to V(V) using Br2 in CH3CN/CHCI3. Ba2V0Si207 + 1/2 Br2 > Bai.5V0Si207 + 1/2 BaBr2. The work presented in this thesis was carried out by the candidate as part of the Ph.D. training programme. He hopes that the studies reported here will constitute a worthwhile contribution to the solid state chemistry of transition metal oxides and related materials.