Dynamics Of Water Drops Impacting Onto The Junction Of Dual-Textured Substrates Comprising Hydrophobic And Hydrophilic Portions
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The research topic of liquid drop interaction with solid surfaces is being actively pursued to gain in-depth understanding of several practical cases such as the impingement of fuel spray droplets on surfaces like combustion chamber walls and piston top of an I.C. engine, heat transfer via spray impingement, ink-jet printing, etc. In most of the cases, the physical and flow properties of the liquid drop/spray may be fixed whereas it may be possible to tune the physical and chemical properties of the solid surface thereby enabling to control the interaction process. The present work belongs to the study of liquid drop-solid surface interaction process with special focus on the physical characteristics of solid surface. The thesis reports an experimental study of the dynamics of millimetric water drops impacted onto the junction of dual-textured substrates made of stainless steel. The dual-textured substrates consisted of hydrophobic (textured) and hydrophilic (smooth) portions. The entire textured portion comprised of parallel groove-like structures separated by solid posts/pillars. Two dual-textured substrates, which differ only in the geometry of their textured portions, were employed. Surface topography features of the dual-textured substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical surface profilometer. The wetting behavior of the textured and smooth portions of the substrates, quantified in terms of the equilibrium, advancing, and receding contact angles adopted by a water drop on the surface portions, was characterized experimentally through the methods of sessile drop formation, captive needle volume addition, and drop evaporation under ambient conditions. Free-falling water drops were impacted from a height onto the junction between the hydrophobic (textured) and hydrophilic (smooth) portions of the dual-textured substrates. A set of twelve different impact experiments were conducted on each of the target substrates with drop impact velocity (Uo) ranging from 0.37 to 1.50 m/sec. The dynamics of drop impact were captured using a high speed camera with frame rate ranging from 3000 to 10000 frames per second. From the captured frames, the temporal variations of the impacting drop parameters were measured using a MATLAB-assisted program. A systematic analysis of experimental data revealed the existence of four distinct regimes of drop dynamics on the dual-textured substrate: (a) early inertia driven drop spreading, (b) primary drop receding, (c) secondary spreading on the hydrophilic portion, and (d) final equilibrium regimes. It is shown that the drop impact dynamics during the early inertia driven impact regime remains unaffected by the dual-texture feature of the substrate. A larger retraction speed of impacting drop liquid observed on the hydrophobic portion of the substrate makes the drop liquid on the higher wettability/hydrophilic portion to advance further (secondary drop spreading). The net horizontal drop velocity towards the hydrophilic portion of the dual-textured substrate decreases with increasing drop impact velocity. The available experimental results suggest that the movement of bulk drop liquid away from the impact point during drop impact on the dual-textured substrate is larger for the impact of low inertia drops. A semi-empirical model, based on the balance of the wettability gradient, contact angle hysteresis, and viscous forces acting on impacted drop liquid on the substrate, is formulated to predict the movement of bulk drop liquid away from the impact point (ξ). A satisfactory comparison between the model predictions and the experimental measurements is reported for the variation of ξ with Uo.
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