Investigation Of Phase Separation In Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Via Self-assembly Approach And Role Of Organic Fluorine In Design Of n-type Molecular Semiconductors
Siram, Raja Bhaskar Kanth
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The present thesis is focused on rational design and synthesis of π-conjugated donoracceptor-donor (D-A-D) type oligomers and D-A type copolymers. Thesis is organized in seven chapters, apart from introduction remaining six chapters are grouped into two parts (A and B). Part A deals with Chapters 2, 3, 4 and Part B contains chapters 5, 6 and 7. A brief discussion on the content of individual chapters is provided below. Chapter 1 discusses the introduction to organic solar cell with operating principles and effect of spinodal decomposition on stability of the devices is presented. The status and literature related to the improvement of life time of the organic solar cells by self-assembly approach has been explored. In addition, design and synthesis of the fluorine substituted π-conjugated organic semiconductors for n-type OFETs and OLED has been discussed. Part A This part of the thesis attempt to address some of the challenges listed below (1) Investigation of miscibility of binary components in bulk heterojunction solar cells through H-bonding approach. (2) Synthesis of new low band gap molecular semiconductors having H-bonding sites. (3) Fabrication of bulk heterojunction solar cell devices using these new molecules and exploring the photovoltaics performance. Chapter 2, donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) concept has been employed to design low band gap oligomers named as TTB. Barbiturate functional group has been utilized to explore the concepts of supramolecular chemistry. It is shown that, TTB molecule self-organizes via intermolecular H-bonding between barbituric acid units. Interactions between the oligothiophene subunits were also found to be important, affording nanoribbons that were observed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. The applicability of TTB for organic electronic applications was investigated by fabricating organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaic device. The crystalline nanoribbons were beneficial in understanding the phase morphology of PCBM and TTB blend. Chapter 3, the self-assemble property of TTB was disrupted by the substitution of methyl group on the nitrogen of the barbituric acid moiety. The optical and electrochemical properties of the new derivative have been investigated by UV-Visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Further investigations on the effect of self-assembly on organic solar cells were carried out by fabricating BHJ and OFET. The results proved that the self-assembly within the donor moieties led to complete phase separation between the donor and acceptor which had an adverse effect on the photovoltaic performance. Chapter 4, the conjugation of TTB was extended by the synthesis of two new copolymers by polymerizing with two oliogothiophene (terthiophene and benzobithiophene) derivatives with different donating strength. The investigation of photophysical and electrochemical properties of copolymers were studied by varying the donating strength. As we increase the donating strength of oligothiophenes, the intramolecular charge transfer band of DA copolymers was red shifted. Further, density functional theory (DFT) calculation of these materials was carried out to get insight into their photophysical properties. Part B This part of the thesis attempt to address some of the challenges listed below (1) Investigation of fluorine substituted organic semiconductos like 2,2’ bithiazole and pheanthroimidazole. (2) Synthesis of pentafluoro phenyl appended derivatives of 2,2’ bithiazole and pheanthroimidazole. (3) Fabrication of OFETs and OLEDs using these new molecules and elucidated the device performance with molecular structure. Chapter 5, pentafluorophenyl appended 2,2’-bithiazole derivatives were synthesized. The single crystal x-ray diffraction studies shows the unusual strong type-II F•••F interactions within the distance of 2.668 Å, at an angle of 89.14° and 174.15°. It also shows the usual type-I F•••F interaction within the distance of 2.825Å, at an angle of 137.38° and 135.93°. Upon bromination type-II Br•••Br interaction was observed and the packing was further stabilized by S•••Br interactions. The conjugation was further extended with different aromatic and heteroaromatic substituents and synthesized the star shaped structure. The band gap as well as the electronic energy levels was tuned by substituting various aromatic and heteroaromatic substituents. These star shaped derivatives shows electron mobilities in the order of 10-4 to 10-3cm2/Vs. Chapter 6, Novel D-A copolymers were synthesized by Stille condensation of electron acceptor fluorinated phenanthroimidazole with electron donors like terthiophene and benzobithiophene. Prior to that insoluble pentafluoro phenyl phenanthroimidazole was Nalkylated in presence of DMF which concurrently resulted in C-F activation of the pentafluoro phenyl moiety. As we increase the donor strength from benzobithiophene to terthiophene the absorbance spectra was red shifted from 446 nm to 482 nm in solution and 455 nm to 484 nm in solid state. The band gap of these copolymers was found to be 2.4 eV for PIBDT and 2.2 eV for PIDHTT from the absorbance spectra. The photoluminescence data shows that these materials are promising for the yellow colour as well as orange colour displays, of narrow wavelength range (FWHM 40 nm for PIBDT and 35 nm for PIDHTT), which can be achieved just by the manipulation of donor moieties in the copolymers. The preliminary electroluminiscence data shows high brightness of 888cd/m2 (orange luminescence) for PIDHTT and 410cd/m2 (yellow luminescence) for PIBDT. Chapter 7, Acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline based donor–acceptor type low band gap conjugated copolymers were synthesized by Stille coupling reaction with the corresponding oligothiophene derivatives. The optical properties of the copolymers were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry while the electrochemical properties were determined by cyclic voltammetry. The band gap of these polymers was found to be in the range of 1.8-2.0 eV as calculated from the optical absorption band edge. The intense charge transfer band in absorption spectra shows the significant effect of acceptor in the copolymers. X-ray diffraction measurements show weak π–π stacking interactions between the polymer chains. The OFET devices fabricated using these co-polymers showed dominant p-channel transistor behavior with the highest mobility of 1×10-3cm2/Vs.
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