Solar Powered High Voltage Energization For Vehicular Exhaust Cleaning : A Step Towards Possible Retrofitting In Vehicles
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In the last few decades India has advanced socioeconomically due to the rapid growth of industries and automobile sector. This in turn increases the use of fossil fuel and diesel. The atmosphere gets polluted due to the harmful substances, which comes from the burning of fuel. These pollutants can be in the form of gaseous, liquid or solid particulate. Air pollution, both indoor and outdoor, is a significant cause of health problems worldwide. In the automobile sector diesel engine exhaust is the major contributor for the air pollution amounting to about 60%. Exhaust generally contains oxides of Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Soot, Oil mist etc. Due to the heavy consumption of diesel as a fuel there is an urgent need to control diesel exhaust. Successful control of emissions from combustion engines particularly from diesel engines is yet to be achieved. The conventional techniques which are available to control emission now are either difficult to operate or does not satisfy the stringent emission standards. Among the major pollutants of diesel exhaust NOx is one of the pollutants to be taken care of as it is the major contributor for acid rain, photochemical smog etc. Further the NOx cause health problems leading to respiratory diseases, pneumonia, asthma etc. Till date, despite improvement in aftertreatment technologies, diesel engine continues to emit large amounts of NOx. The failure of conventional techniques lead to the development of non-conventional techniques such as high voltage electric discharge based plasma which has already been proved to be economical and highly efficient in Industrial Electrostatic Precipitators. Till now all the research regarding control of NOx has been done at the laboratory level using conventional DC and rotary spark gap based high voltage power supply. However, this is not a feasible option for Automobiles. The objective of this thesis is, therefore, to design and fabricate a solar powered high voltage power supply to be retrofitted into a vehicle. This leads to the development of power supply which will be of smaller size & capable of supplying high voltage to the gas treatment reactor. In the present work emphasis has been made on the design and development of a DC/HVAC power unit based on switch mode power supply approach. The thesis mainly presents the following issues: Design & fabrication of solar powered high voltage high frequency power supply for the production of Electric Discharge Plasma. Actual diesel exhausts treatment with the Electric Discharge Plasma. Exhaust treatment with conventional 3 way CAT. Exhaust treatment with cascaded plasma & catalyst/adsorbent system Comparative analysis. The high voltage power supply gives an output of 16kV peak to peak at 12.2 kHz with a 50W power rating. This high frequency high voltage is applied to the gas treatment reactor and studies on actual diesel exhaust cleaning were carried out. It was observed that there was substantial improvement in the NOx removal under this high frequency AC application when compared to conventional 3-way catalytic converter. Studies have also been carried out at different engine loads and a comparative analysis has been made by cascading the NTP with adsorbents & catalysts and results as discussed in detail.