Stability of Accretion Flows And Radiative-Hydrodynamics Around Rotating Black Holes
In the case of cold accretion disk, coupling between charge neutral gas and magnetic field is too weak such that the magneto-rotational instability will be less effective or even stop working. In such a situation it is of prime interest to investigate the pure hydrodynamic turbulence and transport phenomenon. As the Reynolds number increases, the relative importance of the non-linear term in the hydrodynamic equation increases and in the case of accretion disk where molecular viscosity is too small the Reynolds number is large enough for the non-linear term to bring new effects. We investigate a scenario, the ‘weakly non-linear’ evolution of amplitude of linear mode when the flow is bounded by two parallel walls. The unperturbed flow is similar to plane Couette flow but with Coriolis force included in the hydrodynamic equation. Although there is no exponentially growing eigenmode, due to self-interaction the least stable eigenmode will grow in an intermediate phase. Later on this will lead to higher order non-linearity and plausible turbulence. Although the non-linear term in the hydrodynamic equation is energy conserving, within the weakly non-linear analysis it is possible to deﬁne a lower bound of the energy needed for flow to transform to turbulent phase. Such an unstable phase is possible only if the Reynolds number ≥ 103−4. In Chapter-2 we set up equation of amplitude for the hydrodynamic perturbation and study the effect of weak non-linear evolution of linear mode for general angular momentum distribution, where Keplerian disk is obtained as a special case. As we know that to explain observed hard X-rays the choice of Keplerian angular momentum profile is not adequate, we consider the sub-Keplerian regime of the disk. In Chapter-3 we assume that the cooling mechanism is dominated by bremsstrahlung process (without any strict knowledge of the magnetic field structure).We show that in a range of Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity 0.2 ≥ α ≥ 0.0005, flow behavior varies widely, particularly by means of the size of disk, efficiency of cooling and corresponding temperatures of ions and electrons. We also show that the disk around a rotating black hole is hotter compared to that around a Schwarzschild black hole, rendering a larger difference between ion and electron temperatures in the former case. We finally reproduce the observed luminosities(L) of two extreme cases—the under-fed AGNs and quasars and ultra-luminous X-ray sources at different combinations of mass accretion rate, ratio of specific heats, Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter and Kerr parameter. In Chapter-4 we investigate the viscous two temperature accretion disk flows around rotating blackholes. We describe the global solution of accretion flows, unlike that in Chapter-3, with a sub-Keplerian angular momentum profile, by solving the underlying conservation equations including explicit cooling processes self-consistently. Bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and inverse comptonization of soft photons are considered as possible cooling mechanisms. We focus on the set of solutions for sub-Eddington, Eddington and super-Eddington mass accretion rates around Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes with a Kerr parameter 0.998. We analyse various phases of advection–general advective paradigm to radiatively inefficient paradigm. The solution may potentially explain the hard X-rays and γ-rays emitted from AGNs and X-ray binaries. We also compare the solutions for two different regimes of viscosity. We finally reproduce the observed luminosities of the under-fed AGNs and quasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources at different combinations of input parameters such as mass accretion rate and ratio of specific heats.
- Physics (PHY) 
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