Synthesis Of Various Carbon Nanostructures And The Transport Properties Of Carbon Nanotubes
Singh, Laishram Tomba
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Different carbon nanostructures have different properties and different applications. It is needed to synthesize good quality and also on large scale. From the point of industrial applications, highly productive and low cost synthesis method is very essential. Research has been done extensively on the intrinsic and individual properties of both single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWC-NTs) in the range of nanometer to micrometer length scale. The important question is how the properties change beyond this length scale and if they are used in group in the form of an array instead of the individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Some applications require large current output, large energy production etc. For such kind of applications, it becomes essential to use CNTs in large number in the form of arrays or array, instead of using large numbers of CNTs in individual level. Future nanotechnology scope requires large scale application using the very rich intrinsic properties of the CNTs and nanomaterials. Keeping these problems and challenges in front, this thesis work is devoted to the research of the large scale synthesis of mm long MWCNTs, having different morphology and studies on various physical properties of MWCNTs in the form of arrays. Synthesis of mm long aligned and buckled MWCNTs have been reported for the first time. Generally buckled CNTs were obtained by compressing the straight CNTs. Apart from this, different morphologies like, aligned straight, helical or coiled CNTs are also synthesized. Resistance of the individual CNT increases with the increase in length. Resistance versus length of an array of CNT also shows similar behaviour. The thermal conductivity of CNT array is observed to decrease with the increase of array diameter (diameter �100 µm). There are few reports of the similar behaviour with the experiments done on small diameter CNT arrays (diameter �100 nm). From these observations, it seems that in the arrays of CNT, their intrinsic individual property is preserved though the magnitudes are different. The conductance measurements done on buckled CNT array by compressing it to apply uniaxial strain, shows the conductance oscillation. This conductance oscillation seems to be originating from the band gap change due to strain when the CNTs bend during compression. Recent research focuses on the arrays of CNT as they can carry large current of the order of several milliamperes that make the arrays suitable in nanoscale electronics and in controlling macroscopic devices such as light emitting diodes and electromotors. Regarding this aspect, a part of this thesis work is devoted on the application of CNT array to field effect transistor (FET) and study of thermoelectric power generation using CNT arrays. The entire thesis is based on the works discussed above. It has been organized as follows: Chapter 1 deals with introduction about the different carbon nanostructures and different synthesis methods. A brief introduction about the different current-voltage (IV) characteristics of SWCNTs and MWCNTs, length and diameter dependence and effect of the mode of contacts, are given. Some applications of the array of CNTs like buckling effect on compression, stretching of CNT into the form of rope, and conduction change on compression are discussed. Application of CNT as FET, as a thermometer, and thermoelectric effect of CNT are discussed. The electromechanical effect of CNT is also discussed briefly. Chapter 2 deals with experimental setup for synthesis of different morphologies of carbon nanostructures. The samples are characterized using common characterization techniques like, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. A brief introduction about Raman Spectroscopy of CNT is given. Chapter 3 reports the unusual IV characteristics and breakdown of long CNT arrays. The current carrying ability and the threshold voltage as a function of array diameter are reported. The effect of the ambient like temperature and pressure are discussed. Chapter 4 deals with theoretical models to analyze the IV characteristics reported in Chapter 3. It has been shown that a set of classical equations are applicable to quantum structures and the band gap can be evaluated. Chapter 5 describes with application of CNT arrays as temperature sensors. It has been shown that CNT arrays of suitable diameters are used as temperature sensors after calibration. Chapter 6 reports the high current FET application of CNT arrays. Effects of temperature and ambient pressure are discussed. The type of the majority charge carrier is determined. Chapter 7 deals with application of CNT arrays as thermoelectric power generator to get large thermoelectric current. Effects of different array diameter are discussed. Modulation of thermoemf with gate voltage is discussed. The type of the majority charge carrier is determined. Chapter 8 reports the effect of compressive strain on buckled MWCNT arrays. Conductance is measured during the compression of the array. Quantum electromechanical conductance oscillation is observed. The structural changes are observed with SEM. Raman spectroscopic study supports the explanation of the effect. Chapter 9 provides the conclusion and overall summary of the thesis.
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