Development Of Two Dimensional Correlation And Resolved Methodologies For NMR Spectroscopic Discrimination Of Enantiomers
Prabhu, Uday Ramesh
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The research work reported in this thesis deals with the development of novel NMR experimental techniques for the spectroscopic discrimination of enantiomers dissolved in a chiral liquid crystalline medium. The information on the chemical shifts and coupling constants pertaining to each enantiomer has been derived on the investigated chiral molecules. The enantiomeric excess (ee), a parameter which is of profound importance in pharmaceutical industry and in asymmetric synthesis, has also been measured. A special attention is paid to the use of high sensitivity of H NMR for chiral discrimination. Typical analyses of H NMR spectra are severely hindered due to enormous spectral inhomogeneous broadening arising from too many unresolved transitions, in addition to superposition of spectra from both the enantiomers. Therefore, the major part of the work is focused on the design and application of pulse sequences to overcome many of these drawbacks. This helps to achieve very high resolution, discerning of overlapped transitions, identification of resonances pertaining to each enantiomer and simplification of the spectrum for easy extraction of spectral parameters, in addition to the accurate measurement of ee. Initially a brief discussion is provided on enantiomers, diastereomers, basic principles of NMR spectroscopy, the several interaction Hamiltonians responsible for yielding the NMR spectra, introduction to product and polarization operator formalisms that gives insight into the spin dynamics for designing appropriate two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. This sets the foundation to understand the complex multiplet structures of the diagonal peaks and cross peaks in the resulting 2D spectrum. Subsequently, a brief introduction is given for the available techniques for NMR spectroscopic discrimination of enantiomers in isotropic medium, where only chemical shifts are employed as a measurable parameter. The limitations of these techniques are circumvented by the introduction of other anisotropic NMR parameters, such as homo-and hetero-nuclear dipolar couplings, quadrupolar couplings and chemical shift anisotropies. To achieve this goal the enantiomers are dissolved in weakly aligning chiral liquid crystalline (CLC) medium. To understand this, a general introduction to liquid crystals and their utility as an alignment medium in NMR spectroscopy and the anisotropic interactions affecting the NMR spectrum has also been provided. The preparation of the CLC phase of Poly-γ-Benzyl-L-Glutamate (PBLG) employed in the present study and its orientational behaviour has been discussed. The detection of NMR spectra of various nuclei and the interaction parameters utilized for chiral discrimination will be enumerated. A brief summary of the experiments employed for the spectral analyses of the enantiomers dissolved in PBLG will also be presented.