Cold Model Study Of Formation And Breaking Of Raceway
Sastry, Ghatty S S R K
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The raceway in the ironmaking blast furnace is a void in front of the hot blast tuyeres where coke and supplementary fuel burn to supply heat to the ironmaking process. The air velocity through the tuyeres is high (around 200 m/s) and this causes the coke particles to circulate in a rotating flow field inside the raceway. The size and shape of the raceway determine the gas flow dstribution, the reactions that occur, and the temperature profiles in the lower part of the blast furnace. It is for these reasons that the raceway has been extensively researched in the past. . Literature review revealed that forming and breaking of the raceway has not been yet studied. So, in the present study, we have concentrated our effort to study the formation and breaking of the raceway for different blast and bed parameters. The experiments have been performed in two-dimensional glass models. An attempt has been made to develop a correlation for each case. The formation of the void has been studied with change in parameters like density and size of the particles, bed height. The theory of the void formation has been derived from the fundamental principles. The formation of raceway, has been studied with the change in blast parameters like particle density and diameter, bed height and model width. It was found that when raceway is formed there is a sudden increment in pressure drop. The condition for breaking of the raceway, has been studied with change in blast and bed parameters like particle size and density, bed height and model width. It was observed that during the breaking of raceway, pressure decreases continuously. New semi-empirical correlations have been developed using dimensional analysis for formation of void, formation of raceway, and breaking of the raceway. The raceway growth also characterized with change in model width, flow rate, particle diameter, density of the particles and bed height. A few experimental results have been compared with published data. New semi-empirical correlation have been developed using dimensional analysis for the growth of raceway. Velocity of the gas exiting from top of the bed has been measured with the help of hot wire anemometer. It was observed that the velocity leaving from the bed is more on top of the raceway compared to the velocity leaving from the other parts of the bed. High velocity was observed near the wall of the model. Coefficient of wall-friction and angle of internal friction in presence and absence of gas were studied to explain the effect of bed height on formation of the void and raceway. It was observed that in presence of gas, coefficient of friction between the particles and wall and angle of internal friction between particles decreased, compared to the values in absence of gas. To study the effect of mixed particles, on the formation and breaking of the raceway, different sized particles in fixed proportion were taken. It was found that the experiments were more reproducible in case of uniform sized particles compared to mixed particles. It was also observed that for the same average particle diameter, mixture particles requires more velocity to form the void and raceway. New semi-empirical correlations have been developed using dimensional analysis for the formation of void, formation of raceway, growth of the raceway, and breaking of the raceway. Finally, an attempt has been made to quantify the various forces (pressure, bed weight & frictional forces) present in the raceway. Results show that further investigation is required in quantifying these forces properly.