Closed-form Solutions For Rotating And Non-rotating Beams : An Inverse Problem Approach
Rotating Euler-Bernoulli beams and non-homogeneous Timoshenko beams are widely used to model important engineering structures. Hence the vibration analyses of these beams are an important problem from a structural dynamics point of view. The governing differential equations of both these type of beams do not yield any simple closed form solutions, hence we look for the inverse problem approach in determining the beam property variations given certain solutions. Firstly, we look for a rotating beam, with pinned-free boundary conditions, whose eigenpair (frequency and mode-shape) is same as that of a uniform non-rotating beam for a particular mode. It is seen that for any given mode, there exists a flexural stiffness function (FSF) for which the ith mode eigenpair of a rotating beam with uniform mass distribution, is identical to that of a corresponding non-rotating beam with same length and mass distribution. Inserting these derived FSF's in a finite element code for a rotating pinned-free beam, the frequencies and mode shapes of a non-rotating pinned-free beam are obtained. For the first mode, a physically realistic equivalent rotating beam is possible, but for higher modes, the FSF has internal singularities. Strategies for addressing these singularities in the FSF for finite element analysis are provided. The proposed functions can be used as test functions for rotating beam codes and also for targeted destiffening of rotating beams. Secondly, we study the free vibration of rotating Euler-Bernoulli beams, under cantilever boundary condition. For certain polynomial variations of the mass per unit length and the flexural stiffness, there exists a fundamental closed form solution to the fourth order governing differential equation. It is found that there are an infinite number of rotating beams, with various mass per unit length variations and flexural stiffness distributions, which share the same fundamental frequency and mode shape. The derived flexural stiffness polynomial functions are used as test functions for rotating beam numerical codes. They are also used to design rotating cantilever beams which may be required to vibrate with a particular frequency. Thirdly, we study the free vibration of non-homogeneous Timoshenko beams, under fixed-fixed and fixed-hinged boundary conditions. For certain polynomial variations of the material mass density, elastic modulus and shear modulus, there exists a fundamental closed form solution to the coupled second order governing differential equations. It is found that there are an infinite number of non-homogeneous Timoshenko beams, with various material mass density, elastic modulus and shear modulus distributions, which share the same fundamental frequency and mode shape. They can be used to design non-homogeneous Timoshenko beams which may be required for certain engineering applications.