Investigations Into The Bulk Single Crystals, Nano Crystal Composites And Thin Films Of Ferroelectric Materials For Pyroelectric Sensor Applications
MetadataShow full item record
In this thesis, the results pertaining to various investigations carried out on Triglycine sulphate (TGS) single crystals, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films, lithium tantalate (LT)/PVDF nanocomposites and LT thin films are presented with emphasis on the characteristics that are crucial for their use in pyroelectric sensors. TGS single crystals (size 68 x 45 x 42 mm3), which have high pyroelectric coefficients, were grown by slow cooling method using newly designed platform technique based crystal growth work stations. The problem of slow growth rate along c-direction was overcome by placing (010) oriented seeds on the platform. The grown TGS crystals were used for the fabrication of the laser energy meter and temperature sensor. One drawback of TGS is its low Curie temperature (490C). As a consequence when the operating temperature approaches the Curie temperature, the crystals start depolarizing owing to the movement of domains. As a result the linearity of the devices gets affected and restricts the use of TGS. Therefore pyroelectric materials possessing higher Curie temperatures and larger pyroelectric coefficients than that of TGS are desirable. LT in single crystalline form having Curie temperature of ≈6000C has already been in use for pyroelectric device applications. However, growing stoichiometric LT single crystal is very difficult. On the other hand PVDF polymer films (Tc≈1800C) have low pyrolectric coefficients and difficult to pole electrically. Therefore efforts were made to prepare LT/PVDF nanocrystal composites to increase the pyroelectric coefficient of PVDF and to reduce the poling field. Nanoparticles of LT were prepared using sol-gel route. Spherical nanoparticles of size 20-40nm were prepared from sol by adding oleic acid to it. These nanoparticles were characterized using XRD, TEM, DSC and Raman spectroscopy. PVDF films with large percentage of β-phase (ferroelectric phase) were fabricated from solutions prepared using dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) solvent. PVDF films (30µm thick), embedded with 20-40nm sized nanocrystallites of LT were fabricated to utilize them for pyroelectric sensor applications. The ferroelectric and pyrolectric properties of nano composite films were studied for sensor applications point of view. As a replacement for the single crystals of LT in pyroelectric sensors, investigations were carried out on oriented LT thin films. The studies on LT thin films yielded promising results which could be exploited for pyroelectric sensor applications.