Multifunctionalities Of Telllurite And Borate Based Glasses Comprising Nano/Micro Crystals Of Tetragonal Tungsten Bronze-Type Ferroelectric Oxides
Ahamad, M Niyaz
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Transparent glasses embedded with TTB structured ferroelectric nano/micro crystals (K3Li2Nb5O15, Ba5Li2Ti2Nb8O30) were fabricated in various tellurite and borate based glass matrices and characterized for their physical properties. Nanocrystals of K3Li2Nb5O15 were successfully grown inside tellurite glass matrix via conventional heat-treatment route. Eventhough, tellurite glasses preferentially crystallize only on the surface, bulk uniform crystallization was achieved in the (100-x) TeO2 - x(1.5K2O-Li2O-2.5Nb2O5) system. Heat capacity studies revealed them to be thermodynamically less fragile than any other tellurite glasses ever reported in the literature. Pyroelectric and ferroelectric effects as well as second harmonic generation were demonstrated for the heat treated (glass nanocrystal composites) samples in this system. The conventional method of melt-quenching of constituent oxides could not yield Ba5Li2Ti2Nb8O30 crystallites. So, Ba5Li2Ti2Nb8O30 microcrystals were successfully formed in tellurite glass matrix by mixing pre-reacted Ba5Li2Ti2Nb8O30 ceramic powders with TeO2. The glass transition temperature was found to be the highest ever reported and this system was kinetically strong based on the fragility parameter. Dielectric studies revealed a frequency and temperature independent nature of the dielectric constant and very low dielectric loss. The SHG measurement which was carried out as a function of temperature demonstrated the incidence of blue second harmonic generation in the microcrystals present in the glass matrix. Ba5Li2Ti2Nb8O30 nanocrystals were successfully crystallized in the transparent glass system (100-x)Li2B4O7 – x(Ba5Li2Ti2Nb8O30). Dielectric constant increased while the dielectric loss decreased with the increase in Ba5Li2Ti2Nb8O30 content. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies were carried out to have an insight into the structure of this system. Transmission studies and refractive index measurements were performed and various optical parameters were calculated. Dielectric and transport properties were studied for the glasses and glass nano/microcrystal composites of all the systems reported in this thesis. Li+ ion was found to be responsible for conduction in all these systems. Evolution of self-organized nanopatterns of K3Li2Nb5O15 crystals has been demonstrated in the glass system (100-x) TeO2 - x(1.5K2O-Li2O-2.5Nb2O5) by excimer laser irradiation. The second harmonic signal observed by the Maker fringe technique has been attributed to the presence of well-aligned nano-sized grating structures in the glass system. Glasses belonging to the systems TeO2-K3Li2Nb5O15, TeO2-Ba5Li2Ti2Nb8O30 and V2Te2O9 undergo spinodal decomposition on exposing to KrF pulsed excimer laser. The spinodally phase separated structures were observed on all the surfaces of the samples. Ring shaped patterns were observed on several locations of the samples at higher frequency of laser pulses probably owing to the shock waves produced by the high intense laser beam. Line shaped patterns were found to originate on the sample surfaces when irradiated for longer periods.
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