Effect of Ultrasound on Neuronal Network Communication
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Low intensity and low frequency ultrasound has been shown to modulate ion channel currents, membrane capacitive currents, and as a result, neuronal activity. Ultrasound has been used as a non-invasive way to modulate neuronal activity in vivo using mice as well as human subjects. Ultrasound with acoustic frequency as low as 0.35 MHz can be focussed on a region as small as 2 mm with reversible effects and no increase in temperature. In this study, two ultrasound transducers with different resonant frequency have been used to excite neuronal cultures. The resulting changes in the network properties such as synchronised network burst frequency, density, clustering and path length have been analysed. The study shows that ultrasound stimulation at acoustic frequency 450 kHz (ISPPA =11.3 mW/cm2) significantly modulates the above mentioned parameters and causes deviations from small world network properties of the control network.