Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Phosphatidylinositol-Specific Phospholipase C Mediated Regulation Of Lipid Metabolism
Rupwate, Sunny Dinkar
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Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is involved in Ca2+ mediated signalling events that lead to altered cellular status. PLC activation causes hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and generates two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol. Each has distinct role in depending on the cell type in mammalian cells, IP3 binds to intracellular receptors, stimulating the release of sequestered Ca2+. DAG remains in the membrane, where it can activate members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family. In plant absence of PKC keeps the question open as to what is the role of DAG in plants. The role of IP3 apart form triggering calcium release is not known, although the phosphorylated product of IP3 by groups of kinases has been implicated in certain nuclear signalling pathway. Using various sequence-analysis methods on plant PLC sequences, we identified two conserved motifs in known PLC sequences. The identified motifs are located in the C2 domain of plant PLCs and are not found in any other protein. These motifs are specifically found in the Ca2+ binding loops and form adjoining beta strands. Further, we identified certain conserved residues that are highly distinct from corresponding residues of animal PLCs. The motifs reported here could be used to annotate plant-specific phospholipase C sequences. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the C2 domain alone is capable of targeting PLC to the membrane in response to a Ca2+ signal. We also showed that the binding event results from a change in the hydrophobicity of the C2 domain upon Ca2+ binding. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that all PLCs from Arabidopsis and rice lack a transmembrane domain, myristoylation and GPI-anchor protein modifications. Our bioinformatic study indicates that plant PLCs are located in the cytoplasm, the nucleus and the mitochondria. Our results suggest that there are no distinct isoforms of plant PLCs, as have been proposed to exist in the soluble and membrane associated fractions. The same isoform could potentially be present in both subcellular fractions, depending on the calcium level of the cytosol. we have used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to investigate physiological function of PLC in regulation of lipid metabolism. S. cerevisiae synthesizes membrane phospholipids via a pathway which appears to be similar to that of higher eukaryotes. The synthesis of glycerolipid begins with the formation of phosphatidic acid which is quantitatively a minor lipid but is responsible for the repression of UNAINO-containing phospholipid biosynthetic gene by governing localization of Opi1. When the levels of phosphatidic acid are lowered which causes translocation of Opi1 from endoplasmic reticulum membrane to nucleus, where it binds to INO2 of the INO2-INO4 activator complex thereby attenuating transcriptional activation. The expression of phospholipid biosynthetic gene is affected by many conditions which include carbon source, nutrient availability, growth stage, pH and temperature. The well studied conditions which regulate phospholipid biosynthetic genes transcription are through exogenous supplementation of inositol, which is achieved by lowering of phosphatidic acid levels by its utilization for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol. Since inositol was able to change regulates phospholipid biosynthetic gene we proposed to investigate inositol triphosphate role in such regulation. We overexpressed a plant phospholipase C in yeast to study its effect on lipid biosynthesis. The overexpressed yeast cells were subjected to microarray analysis and the result were confirmed by Q-PCR. The result obtained indicated that there was decrease in the expression of UNAINO-containing genes. To further validate our observation we carried out an in vivo assay to determined activity of enzyme involved in phospholipid biosynthesis. These results were in accordance with our expression analysis further supporting our hypothesis. Our study indicates that phospholipase c regulates phospholipid biosynthesis at transcription level in response to various stimuli. Overall, these data suggest that the C2 domain of plant PLC plays a vital role in calcium signalling. Further it can be inferred from this study that PI-PLC regulates lipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae.
- Biochemistry (BC) 
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