Transcriptional Regulation By Nuclear Receptor Homodimers Binding To The Direct Repeat Motif DR1 : Investigations In An in vitro Transcription System Derived From Rat Liver Nuclear Extracts
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes such as embryonic development, cell differentiation and homeostasis (for review, see Mangelsdorf et al., 1995 TenBaum and Baniahrned, 1997). In contrast to membrane bound receptors, they bind small lipophilic ligands and function in the nucleus as ligand-modulated transcription factors. The ligands for nuclear receptors include steroids (glucocorticoids, progestins, mineralocorticoids, androgens and estrogens), vitamin D3, retinoids, thyroid hormone, prostaglandins, farnesoids etc. Several other nuclear receptors are classified as orphan receptors for which no ligand has yet been identified. More than 300 nuclear receptors have now been identified and together these proteins comprise the single largest family of metazoan transcription factors, the nuclear receptor superfamily. Recently, a unified nomenclature has been evolved (nuclear receptor nomenclature committee, 1999), a summary of which is presented in Table 1.
- Biochemistry (BC)