Diversity-Multiplexing Gain Tradeoff Of Cooperative Multi-hop Networks
We consider single-source single-sink (ss-ss) multi-hop relay networks, with slow-fading links and single-antenna half-duplex relay nodes. While two-hop cooperative relay networks have been studied in great detail in terms of the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT), few results are available for more general networks. In this paper, we identify two families of networks that are multi-hop generalizations of the two-hop network: K-Parallel-Path (KPP) networks and layered networks. KPP networks can be viewed as the union of K node-disjoint parallel relaying paths, each of length greater than one. KPP networks are then generalized to KPP(I) networks, which permit interference between paths and to KPP(D) networks, which possess a direct link from source to sink. We characterize the DMT of these families of networks completely for K > 3. Layered networks are networks comprising of layers of relays with edges existing only between adjacent layers, with more than one relay in each layer. We prove that a linear DMT between the maximum diversity dmax and the maximum multiplexing gain of 1 is achievable for single-antenna fully-connected layered networks. This is shown to be equal to the optimal DMT if the number of relaying layers is less than 4. For multiple-antenna KPP and layered networks, we provide an achievable DMT, which is significantly better than known lower bounds for half duplex networks. For arbitrary multi-terminal wireless networks with multiple source-sink pairs, the maximum achievable diversity is shown to be equal to the min-cut between the corresponding source and the sink, irrespective of whether the network has half-duplex or full-duplex relays. For arbitrary ss-ss single-antenna directed acyclic networks with full-duplex relays, we prove that a linear tradeoff between maximum diversity and maximum multiplexing gain is achievable. Along the way, we derive the optimal DMT of a generalized parallel channel and derive lower bounds for the DMT of triangular channel matrices, which are useful in DMT computation of various protocols. All protocols in this paper are explicit and use only amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying. We also construct codes with short block-lengths based on cyclic division algebras that achieve the optimal DMT for all the proposed schemes. Two key implications of the results in the paper are that the half-duplex constraint does not entail any rate loss for a large class of cooperative networks and that simple AF protocols are often sufficient to attain the optimal DMT.
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