Small Angle Measurement Using Optical Caustics From Hollow Cylinders - Few Investingations
kulkarni, Milind Anant
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‘Optical Caustics’ represent some of the most visually striking patterns of the light in nature.They occur when light rays from a source, such as the sun, get refracted, or reflected by curved media so as to bend and alter their path. They are ubiquitous and signify the regions of space in which many rays intersect to form bright singularities along a two-or a three-dimensional surface. The associated 2-D patterns (caustic patterns) could be simple or complex in ‘shape and size’ depending upon the optical arrangement used to produce them. Such patterns exhibit either a static or a dynamic behavior which can be controlled sensitively by the medium or the device used to produce them. The present thesis concerns with a few novel contributions in utilization of such optical caustics for the measurement of small angular rotation/tilt of objects. Utilizing a ‘hollow cylinder’ as a novel device for the generation of the optical caustics, the author proposed and demonstrated three new schemes of realizing a position-dependent-behavior of ‘Optical Caustic Patterns’. The said behavior is investigated both analytically as well as experimentally. The results of the investigation are then utilized to propose and demonstrate three methods of magnifying angular displacement of the hollow cylinder. The salient feature of the principle behind each of the said methods is illustrated in the figures below. The patterns in each of the above pictures correspond to two different positions of the hollow cylinder-the pattern in white color corresponds to the initial position while that in red color corresponds to new angular position of the cylinder. Defining S1 = ƒ (LΔΦ), S2= ƒ(TΔΦ) and S3= ƒ(ξ ΔΦ) as new signals from the proposed methods, it has been shown that each of them represent a magnified measure of the change in the angular position of the cylinder ΔΦ. Further, if a plane mirror is used in place of cylinder in the proposed methods, the corresponding signal S for the same change in the angular position ΔΦis represented by ΔD. For a chosen set of the experimental conditions, it is shown that for unit change in ΔΦ, the values of S1, S2 and S3 change 30, 37 and 62 times faster than ΔD. The investigations clearly demonstrate that hollow cylinders can be advantageously used as position-magnifying angle-sensing devices. The results of the investigations also suggest that in application areas such as auto collimation, torsion pendulum and design of motion control stages, this device is expected to bring in new advances.
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