Development of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Based Devices for Force, Flow and Temperature Measurement for Emerging Applications in Biomedical Domain
Efficient and accurate sensing of various parameters is needed for numerous applications. In this regard, different categories of sensors play a significant role and different applications require diverse sensing mechanisms owing to the operating conditions and field constraints. Among the several sensor methodologies available, optical fiber sensors have found significant attention, because of their advantages such as negligible foot print, small mass, immunity to Electromagnetic Interference, etc. In the category of optical fiber sensors, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have found importance in many fields such as health monitoring of civil structures, environmental monitoring involving gas & humidity sensing, monitoring parameters like pressure, tilt, displacement, etc. In the recent times, FBGs have found applications in biomedical, biomechanical and biosensing fields. A FBG is a periodic change of the refractive index of the core of a single mode optical fiber along its longitudinal axis. The periodic modulation in the index of refraction is obtained by exposing a photosensitive germanium-doped silica fiber to an intense UV laser beam. FBGs, in the basic form, can sense strain and temperature. However, in recent years, several newer sensing applications of FBGs have been demonstrated. Some of the main features of the FBG sensor which qualify them for diverse sensing applications are high sensitivity, large operational bandwidth, multiplexing & multi modal sensing capability, etc. In this thesis work, FBG sensor based devices have been developed for newer applications in bio-medical fields for the measurement of force, flow and temperature. Particularly, novel transduction methodologies have been proposed, in order to convert the measurand parameter into a secondary parameter that can be sensed by the FBG sensor. The evaluation of the force required for a spinal needle to penetrate various tissue layers from skin to the epidural space is vital. In this work, a novel technique for dynamic monitoring of force experienced by a spinal needle during lumbar puncture using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor has been developed. The Fiber Bragg Grating Force Device (FBGFD) developed, measures the force on the spinal needle due to varied resistance offered by different tissue layers during its traversal. The effect of gauge of the spinal needle used for the lumbar puncture procedure affects the force required for its insertion into the tissue. The FBGFD developed, has been further utilized for a comparative study of the force required for lumbar puncture of various tissue layers with spinal needle of different gauges. The results obtained may serve as a guideline for selection of suitable gauge spinal needle during lumbar puncture minimizing post puncture side effects on patients. The pulmonary function test carried out using a spirometer, provides vital information about the functional status of the respiratory system of the subject. A Fiber Bragg Grating Spirometer (FBGS) has been developed which has the ability to convert the rate of air flow into a shift in wavelength that can be acquired by the FBG sensor. The FBGS can dynamically acquire the complete breathing sequence comprising of the inhalation phase, pause phase and exhalation phase in terms of the air flow rate along with the time duration of each phase. Methods are adopted to analyse and determine important pulmonary parameters using FBGS and compare these parameters with those obtained with a commercially available hospital grade pneumotachograph spirometer. Thermal imaging is one of the emerging non-invasive neuro-imaging techniques which can potentially indicate the boundaries of a brain tumor. The variation in tissue surface temperature is indicative of a tumor existence. In this work a FBG temperature sensor (FBGTS) has been developed for thermography of a simulated tissue using Agar material. The temperature of the embedded heater which mimics a brain tumor along with the surface temperature of the tissue model, is acquired using FBGTSs simultaneously. Further, the surface temperatures are studied for varying heater temperatures as well as varying positions of the heater in the simulated tissue model. To conclude, FBG based devices have been developed in this work, for applications in biomedical domain, with appropriate transduction methodologies for sensing different parameters such as force, flow and temperature.
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Shivananju, B N (2017-05-04)In this thesis work, a systematic quantitative study has been undertaken, on the performance of etched fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors in the investigation of surface molecular adsorption in real-time; it is shown that ...
Design, Development and Validation of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Based Devices for Detecting Certain Healthcare Parameters Chethana, K (2018-01-30)Several sensor technologies have been developed and experimented over the last few decades to cater various needs of medical diagnostics. Among these, fiber optic sensors, in particular, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) based ...
Padma, G SrivaniThe present thesis work comprises of design and development of devices based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors for novel biomedical applications. Here, novel packaging methodologies have been utilized for transduction ...