Physical Layer Impairments Aware Transparent Wavelength Routed and Flexible-Grid Optical Networks
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Optical WDM network is the suitable transport mechanism for ever increasing bandwidth intensive internet applications. The WDM technique transmits the data over several different wavelengths simultaneously through an opticalfiber and the switching is done at wavelength level. The connection between the source and destination is called the light path. Since the WDM network carries huge amount of tra c, any failure can cause massive data loss. Therefore protecting the network against failure is an important issue. Maintaining high level of service availability is an important aspect of service provider. To provide cost effective service, all-optical network is the suitable choice for the service provider. But in all optical network, the signals are forced to remain in optical domain from source to destination. In the firrst part of the thesis, we deal the physical layer impairments (PLIs) aware shared-path provisioning on a wavelength routed all-optical networks. As the signal travels longer distances, the quality of the signal gets degraded and the receiver may not be able to detect the optical signal properly. Our objective is to establish a light path for both the working path and protection path with acceptable signal quality at the receiver. We propose an impairment aware integer linear programming (ILP) and impairment aware heuristic algorithm that takes into account the PLIs. The ILP provides the optimal solution. It is solved using IBM ILOG CPLEX solver. It is intractable for large size net-work. Therefore we propose the heuristic algorithm for large size network. It is evaluated through discrete-event simulation. But the algorithm provides only the suboptimal solution. To know the performance of this algorithm, the simulation result is compared with the optimal solution. We compute total blocking probability, restoration delay, computation time, and connection setup delay with respect to network load for the heuristic algorithm. We compare the performance of shared-path protection with dedicated-path protection and evaluate the percentage of resource saving of shared-path protection over the dedicated-path protection. In the second and third part of the thesis, we address the issues related to flexible-grid optical networks. In wavelength routed optical network, the bandwidth of each wavelength is fixed and rigid. It supports coarse grained tra c grooming and leads to ancient spectrum utilization. To overcome this, flexible-grid optical networks are proposed. It supports flexible bandwidth, and ne grained tra c groom In the second part of the thesis, we address the routing and spectrum allocation (RSA) algorithm for variable-bit-rate data tra c for flexible-grid optical networks. The RSA problem is NP-complete. Therefore a two-step heuristic approach (routing and spectrum allocation) is proposed to solve the RSA problem. The first step is solved by using a classical shortest path algorithm. For the second step we propose two heuristic schemes for frequency-slot allocation: (i) largest number of free frequency-slot allocation scheme and (ii) largest number of free frequency-slot maintaining scheme. As the network load increases, the spectrum is highly fragmented. To mitigate the fragmentation of the spectrum, we propose a xed-path least-fragmentation heuristic algorithm which fragments the spectrum minimally. It also supports varying-bit-rate tra c and also supports dynamic arrival connection requests. Through extensive simulations the proposed algorithms have been evaluated. Our simulation results show that the algorithms perform better in terms of spectrum utilization, blocking probability, and fraction of fragmentation of the spectrum. The spectrum utilization can reach up to a maximum of 92% and that only 71% of the spectrum is fragmented under maximum network load condition. Finally in the third part of the thesis, we discuss PLIs-aware RSA for the transparent exible-grid optical network. In this network, not only the optical signal expected to travel longer distance, but also to support higher line rates, i.e., data rate is increased up to 1 Tb/s. In such a high data rate, the optical signals are more prone to impairments and noises. As the transmission distance increases, optical signals are subject to tra-verse over many bandwidth-variable wavelength cross connects (BV-WXC) and multiple fibber spans due to which the PLIs get accumulated and are added to the optical signal. These accumulated impairments degrades the signal quality to an unacceptable level at the receiver, the quality of transmission falls below the acceptable threshold value, and the receiver may not be able to detect the signal properly. Therefore our objective is to develop an impairment aware RSA algorithm which establishes the QoT satisfied empathy based on the available resources and the quality of the signal available at the receiver. We formulate the PLIs-RSA problem as an ILP that provides an optimal solution. The optimal solution is obtained by solving the ILP using IBM ILOG CPLEX optimization solver. Since ILP is not efficient for large-size networks, we propose a heuristic algorithm for such a large-size networks. The signal power is measured at the receiver and the connection is established only when the signal power lies above the threshold value. The heuristic algorithm is evaluated through discrete-event simulation. It gives the sub-optimal solution. The simulation result is compared with optimal solution. The result shows that heuristic algorithm performs closer to the ILP. We compute the total blocking probability versus the network load for different spectrum allocation schemes. Total blocking probability is the sum of frequency-slot blocking probability and QoT blocking probability. We compute spectrum efficiency for the proposed algorithm. We also compare our algorithm with the existing routing and spectrum allocation algorithm, and the result shows that our algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of blocking probability and spectrum utilization.
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