Low-Complexity Decoding and Construction of Space-Time Block Codes
Natarajan, Lakshmi Prasad
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Space-Time Block Coding is an efficient communication technique used in multiple-input multiple-output wireless systems. The complexity with which a Space-Time Block Code (STBC) can be decoded is important from an implementation point of view since it directly affects the receiver complexity and speed. In this thesis, we address the problem of designing low complexity decoding techniques for STBCs, and constructing STBCs that achieve high rate and full-diversity with these decoders. This thesis is divided into two parts; the first is concerned with the optimal decoder, viz. the maximum-likelihood (ML) decoder, and the second with non-ML decoders. An STBC is said to be multigroup ML decodable if the information symbols encoded by it can be partitioned into several groups such that each symbol group can be ML decoded independently of the others, and thereby admitting low complexity ML decoding. In this thesis, we first give a new framework for constructing low ML decoding complexity STBCs using codes over the Klein group, and show that almost all known low ML decoding complexity STBCs can be obtained by this method. Using this framework we then construct new full-diversity STBCs that have the least known ML decoding complexity for a large set of choices of number of transmit antennas and rate. We then introduce the notion of Asymptotically-Good (AG) multigroup ML decodable codes, which are families of multigroup ML decodable codes whose rate increases linearly with the number of transmit antennas. We give constructions for full-diversity AG multigroup ML decodable codes for each number of groups g > 1. For g > 2, these are the first instances of g-group ML decodable codes that are AG or have rate more than 1. For g = 2 and identical delay, the new codes match the known families of AG codes in terms of rate. In the final section of the first part we show that the upper triangular matrix R encountered during the sphere-decoding of STBCs can be rank-deficient, thus leading to higher sphere-decoding complexity, even when the rate is less than the minimum of the number of transmit antennas and the number receive antennas. We show that all known AG multigroup ML decodable codes suffer from such rank-deficiency, and we explicitly derive the sphere-decoding complexities of most known AG multigroup ML decodable codes. In the second part of this thesis we first study a low complexity non-ML decoder introduced by Guo and Xia called Partial Interference Cancellation (PIC) decoder. We give a new full-diversity criterion for PIC decoding of STBCs which is equivalent to the criterion of Guo and Xia, and is easier to check. We then show that Distributed STBCs (DSTBCs) used in wireless relay networks can be full-diversity PIC decoded, and we give a full-diversity criterion for the same. We then construct full-diversity PIC decodable STBCs and DSTBCs which give higher rate and better error performance than known multigroup ML decodable codes for similar decoding complexity, and which include other known full-diversity PIC decodable codes as special cases. Finally, inspired by a low complexity essentially-ML decoder given by Sirianunpiboon et al. for the two and three antenna Perfect codes, we introduce a new non-ML decoder called Adaptive Conditional Zero-Forcing (ACZF) decoder which includes the technique of Sirianunpiboon et al. as a special case. We give a full-diversity criterion for ACZF decoding, and show that the Perfect codes for two, three and four antennas, the Threaded Algebraic Space-Time code, and the 4 antenna rate 2 code of Srinath and Rajan satisfy this criterion. Simulation results show that the proposed decoder performs identical to ML decoding for these five codes. These STBCs along with ACZF decoding have the best error performance with least complexity among all known STBCs for four or less transmit antennas.
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