Algorithm And Architecture Design for Real-time Face Recognition
Mahale, Gopinath Vasanth
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Face recognition is a field of biometrics that deals with identification of subjects based on features present in the images of their faces. The factors that make face recognition popular and favorite as compared to other biometric methods are easier operation and ability to identify subjects without their knowledge. With these features, face recognition has become an integral part of the present day security systems, targeting a smart and secure world. There are various factors that de ne the performance of a face recognition system. The most important among them are recognition accuracy of algorithm used and time taken for recognition. Recognition accuracy of the face recognition algorithm gets affected by changes in pose, facial expression and illumination along with occlusions in the images. There have been a number of algorithms proposed to enable recognition under these ambient changes. However, it has been hard to and a single algorithm that can efficiently recognize faces in all the above mentioned conditions. Moreover, achieving real time performance for most of the complex face recognition algorithms on embedded platforms has been a challenge. Real-time performance is highly preferred in critical applications such as identification of crime suspects in public. As available software solutions for FR have significantly large latency in recognizing individuals, they are not suitable for such critical real-time applications. This thesis focuses on real-time aspect of FR, where acceleration of the algorithms is achieved by means of parallel hardware architectures. The major contributions of this work are as follows. We target to design a face recognition system that can identify at most 30 faces in each frame of video at 15 frames per second, which amounts to 450 recognitions per second. In addition, we target to achieve good recognition accuracy along with scalability in terms of database size and input image resolutions. To design a system with these specifications, as a first step, we explore algorithms in literature and come up with a hybrid face recognition algorithm. This hybrid algorithm shows good recognition accuracy on face images with changes in illumination, pose and expressions, and also with occlusions. In addition the computations in the algorithm are modular in nature which are suitable for real-time realizations through parallel processing. The face recognition system consists of a face detection module to detect faces in the input image, which is followed by a face recognition module to identify the detected faces. There are well established algorithms and architectures for face detection in literature which can perform detection at 15 frames per second on video frames. Detected faces of different sizes need to be scaled to the size specified by the face recognition module. To meet the real-time constraints, we propose a hardware architecture for real-time bi-cubic convolution interpolation with dynamic scaling factors. To recognize the resized faces in real-time, a scalable parallel pipelined architecture is designed for the hybrid algorithm which can perform 450 recognitions per second on a database containing grayscale images of at most 450 classes on Virtex 6 FPGA. To provide flexibility and programmability, we extend this design to REDEFINE, a multi-core massively parallel reconfigurable architecture. In this design, we come up with FR specific programmable cores termed Scalable Unit for Region Evaluation (SURE) capable of performing modular computations in the hybrid face recognition algorithm. We replicate SUREs in each tile of REDEFINE to construct a face recognition module termed REDEFINE for Face Recognition using SURE Homogeneous Cores (REFRESH). There is a need to learn new unseen faces on-line in practical face recognition systems. Considering this, for real-time on-line learning of unseen face images, we design tiny processors termed VOP, Processor for Vector Operations. VOPs function as coprocessors to process elements under each tile of REDEFINE to accelerate micro vector operations appearing in the synaptic weight computations. We also explore deep neural networks which operate similar to the processing in human brain and capable of working on very large face databases. We explore the field of Random matrix theory to come up with a solution for synaptic weight initialization in deep neural networks for better classification . In addition, we perform design space exploration of hardware architecture for deep convolution networks and conclude with directions for future work.
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