Design And Analysis Of Integrated Optic Resonators For Biosensing Applications
In this thesis, we have designed and optimized strip waveguide based micro-ring and micro-ring and micro-racetrack resonators for biosensing applications. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) platform which offers several advantages over other materials such as Lithium Niobate, Silica on Silicon and Silicon nitride is considered here. High index contrast enables us to miniaturize the biosensor devices and monolithic integration of source and detectors on the same chip. We have considered the dispersive nature of the waveguide and proceeded towards optimization. Finite difference schemes and Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods are the primary tools used to model the biosensor. Various structures such as channel waveguides and beam structures are analyzed on the basis of their suitability for sensing applications. Strip and Rib waveguides are the two geometries considered in our studies. In an optical guiding structure, effective index of the propagating optical mode can be induced by two different phenomena: i. Homogeneous Sensing In this category, effective index of a propagating optical mode changes with uniformly distributed analytes extending over a distance well exceeding the evanescent field penetration depth. The sample serves as the waveguide cover. ii. Surface Sensing In the case of surface sensing, analytes bound to the surface of the waveguide. The effective index of an optical mode changes with the refractive index as well as the thickness of an adlayer. A thin layer of adsorbed or bound molecules transported from liquid or gaseous medium serving as waveguide cover is referred as an adlayer. Both homogeneous and surface sensing schemes are addresses in this work. By bulk sensing method, the characteristics of bioclad covering the device are studied. Optimization of the resonator structure involves the analysis of following parameters: • Gap between the ring and bus waveguides • Free spectral range • Extinction ratio • Quality factor We have achieved a maximum bulk sensitivity of 115 nm / RIU with ring waveguide width of 450 nm and bus width of 350 nm which is better than an earlier reported value of 70 nm/ RIU. We have proposed a novel detection scheme consisting of a micro-racetrack resonator formed over a cantilever structure. The devoice works on the principle of opto-mechanical coupling to detect conformational changes due to biomolecular adherence. BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) and IgG ( Immuno Globulin G) are the two proteins considered in the work. Mechanical analysis of the beam for tensile and compressive stresses and corresponding spectral responses of the racetrack resonators are analyzed both by semi-analytical and method and numerical analyzes. We compared various aspects of rib and strip waveguide racetrack resonators. We have proved by numerical simulation, that the device is capable of distinguishing tensile and compressive stress. Two strip waveguides of dimensions : 450 nm X 220 nm and 400 nm X 180 nm, former supporting both Quasi-TE and Quasi-TM modes where as the second configuration allows only Quasi-TE mode alone. Sensitivity of the cantilever sensor is : 0.3196 x 10-3 nm/ µɛ at 1550 nm wavelength.
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