Axially Symmetric Equivalents Of Three-Dimensional Rf Ion Traps
Shareef, I Khader
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This thesis presents axially symmetric equivalents of three-dimensional rf ion traps. Miniaturization in mass spectrometry has focused on miniaturizing mass analyzers. Decrease in mass analyzer size facilitates reduction of the size of other components of a mass spectrometer, especially the radio frequency electronics and vacuum system. Miniaturized mass analyzers are made using advanced microfabrication techniques. Due to micromachining limitations, it is not possible to fabricate ion traps with exact axial symmetry. The motivation for this thesis is to investigate newer three-dimensional geometries which do not possess axial symmetry, but are equivalent in performance to axially symmetric ion traps. We introduce a 3D geometry called square ion trap(SIT) having a ring electrode made off our square shaped planar surfaces and square shaped endcap electrodes resembling a cuboid. Initially, a SIT geometry is taken and it will be investigated if this unknown 3D geometry can be made equivalent to a well characterized, axially symmetric ion trap like the CIT. The purpose of showing equivalence will be to understand the ion dynamics and fields inside the new 3D SIT. This thesis consists of five chapters. In Chapter 1, we present the necessary background information required to understand the operation of a mass spectrometer. The Paul trap geometry is introduced followed by the derivation of equation of ion motion inside the Paul trap. The Mathieu stability plot and the modes of operation of a mass spectrometer are briefly discussed. The chapter ends by outlining scope of the thesis. Chapter 2 describes the computational methods employed by us in the thesis. First, the geometry of square ion trap is introduced. Then the boundary element method(BEM) which is used to compute the charge distribution on the electrode surfaces is discussed. This is followed by the three-dimensional Green’s function which should be employed for non-axially symmetric structures. The method to calculate potential and field inside the ion trap from charge distribution is shown. Calculation of multipole coefficients for non-axially symmetric traps using charge distribution is shown. The methods used to generate ion trajectory and stability plot are discussed. The Nelder-Mead simplex method used for optimization is also presented. To verify our numerical methods of charge calculation, we have taken standard textbook problems and compared our results with those presented therein. The multipoles calculation, field and ion trajectory was verified by comparing the results for the Paul trap and cylindrical ion traps. Chapter 3 presents the results for axially symmetric equivalents of 3D rf ion traps. SIT geometry of dimensions equivalent to the CIT0 are taken and field and multipoles are studied in it. Then optimization is applied to create a CIT geometry equivalent to the SIT under study. Axial field and ion trajectory was compared and observed to be matching. Finally, stability plot was generated for both SIT and its equivalent CIT and was found to present a close match. Chapter 4 presents the numerical results obtained for three-dimensional rf ion trap equivalent of CIT. In this chapter, we have considered two standard geometries, the CIT0 and the CITopt. Optimization was applied to create SIT geometries equivalent to the CIT0 and the CITopt respectively. Comparison of fields and ion trajectory confirmed the fact that non-axially symmetric traps can be created equivalent to any axially symmetric ion trap. We have also considered another case of axially symmetric circular planar ion trap which has an annular ring electrode and two planar endcap electrodes. Square equivalent of circular planar trap was created by the optimizer and its equivalent was verified by ion trajectory comparison. Chapter 5 summarizes the thesis with a few concluding remarks.