dc.description.abstract | Cauchy problems for elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, such as, cardiography, nondestructive testing, heat transfer, sonic boom produced by a maneuvering aerofoil, etc. Elliptic Cauchy problems are typically ill-posed, i.e., there may not be a solution for some Cauchy data, and even if a solution exists uniquely, it may not depend continuously on the Cauchy data. The ill-posedness causes numerical instability and makes the classical numerical methods inappropriate to solve such problems. For Cauchy problems, the research on uniqueness, stability, and efficient numerical methods are of significant interest to mathematicians. The main focus of this thesis is to develop numerical techniques for elliptic Cauchy problems.
Elliptic Cauchy problems can be approached as data completion problems, i.e., from over-specified Cauchy data on an accessible part of the boundary, one can try to recover missing data on the inaccessible part of the boundary. Then, the Cauchy problems can be solved by finding a so-lution to a well-posed boundary value problem for which the recovered data constitute a boundary condition on the inaccessible part of the boundary.
In this thesis, we use natural linearization approach to transform the linear Cauchy problem into a problem of solving a linear operator equation. We consider this operator in a weaker image space H−1, which differs from the previous works where the image space of the operator is usually considered as L2 . The lower smoothness of the image space will make a problem a bit more ill-posed. But under such settings, we can prove the compactness of the considered operator. At the same time, it allows a relaxation of the assumption concerning noise.
The numerical methods that can cope with these ill-posed operator equations are the so called regularization methods. One prominent example of such regularization methods is Tikhonov regularization which is frequently used in practice. Tikhonov regularization can be considered as a least-squares tracking of data with a regularization term. In this thesis we discuss a possibility to improve the reconstruction accuracy of the Tikhonov regularization method by using an iterative modification of Tikhonov regularization. With this iterated Tikhonov regularization the effect of the penalty term fades away as iterations go on.
In the application of iterated Tikhonov regularization, we find that for severely ill-posed problems such as elliptic Cauchy problems, discretization has such a powerful influence on the accuracy of the regularized solution that only with some reasonable discretization level, desirable accuracy can be achieved. Thus, regularization by projection method which is commonly known as self-regularization is also considered in this thesis. With this method, the regularization is achieved only by discretization along with an appropriate choice of discretization level.
For all regularization methods, the choice of an appropriate regularization parameter is a crucial issue. For this purpose, we propose the balancing principle which is a recently introduced powerful technique for the choice of the regularization parameter. While applying this principle, a balance between the components related to the convergence rate and stability in the accuracy estimates has to be made. The main advantage of the balancing principle is that it can work in an adaptive way to obtain an appropriate value of the regularization parameter, and it does not use any quantitative knowledge of convergence rate or stability. The accuracy provided by this adaptive strategy is worse only by a constant factor than one could achieve in the case of known stability and convergence rates. We apply the balancing principle in both iterated Tikhonov regularization and self-regularization methods to choose the proper regularization parameters.
In the thesis, we also investigate numerical techniques based on iterative Tikhonov regular-ization for nonlinear elliptic Cauchy problems. We consider two types of problems. In the first kind, the nonlinear problem can be transformed to a linear problem while in the second kind, linearization of the nonlinear problem is not possible, and for this we propose a special iterative method which differs from methods such as Landweber iteration and Newton-type method which are usually based on the calculation of the Frech´et derivative or adjoint of the equation.
Abundant examples are presented in the thesis, which illustrate the performance of the pro-posed regularization methods as well as the balancing principle. At the same time, these examples can be viewed as a support for the theoretical results achieved in this thesis.
In the end of this thesis, we describe the sonic boom problem, where we first encountered the ill-posed nonlinear Cauchy problem. This is a very difficult problem and hence we took this problem to provide a motivation for the model problems. These model problems are discussed one by one in the thesis in the increasing order of difficulty, ending with the nonlinear problems in Chapter 5.
The main results of the dissertation are communicated in the article [35]. | en_US |